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Delaware County, NY Genealogy and History Site


The History of Delaware County
W.W. MUNSELL 1797-1880

THE TOWN OF ANDES

Electronic text by Bob Chagnon, John Hope, Louise Belsby and Steve McNeill

The town of Andes was formed from the town of Middletown, under a special act of the forty-second session of the State Legislature, passed April 13, 1819. This act provided that "from and after the first Monday in March, 1820, all that part of Middletown bounded * * * shall be, and is hereby, declared a separate town, by the name of Andes; and the first town meeting shall be held in the village of Trempersville, in said town, on the first Tuesday in March, 1820." The name of the town was the result of a jocular suggestion by Daniel H. Burr, who, seeing that the new town was to include one of the hilliest sections of the county, said it ought to be called Andes.

The perimeter of the town is a very irregular line, touching the town of Hardenburgh, Ulster County, on the south; Middletown on the east; Bovina, Delhi and Hamden on the north, and Colchester on the west; and includes 64,818 acres, being the fourth town in size in the county. The northern boundary of the town is on the watershed between the east and west branches of the Delaware river. Situate upon a spur of the Catskills, the surface of the town is a mountainous upland, with ledges of shale rock cropping out of almost every slope, and in some parts boulders are scattered over the surface in such profusion as to render the fields absolutely useless. On the summits of the hills are frequently vast areas of flat rock, with scarcely enough covering of soil to support vegetable life.

Mount Pisgah, in the northeastern part of the town, is the highest peak in the county, reaching an altitude of 3,440 feet above tide water. This peak received the name it bears from an apt remark of General Root. He was in the old stage coach on the Esopus turnpike, on his way westward from the valley of the Hudson, and on coming in sight of its lofty summit he asked its name. As it was not then known by a suitable distinctive title there was no response. The coach lurched along over the wilderness road, bringing the passengers occasionally in view of the mountain, and at last the general remarked that as they, (like-?) the children of Israel, were wanderers in the wilderness and often in view of the mount, it should be called Pisgah.

The east branch of the Delaware, passing through the southern part of the town, from east to west, is navigable for rafts and small boats as far up as Margaretville. The current is strong at many points, but there are no rapids. The average fall from Margaretville to Pepacton is about eight feet per mile. The tributaries of this branch furnish an unlimited supply of water power. This advantage which the town has enjoyed has been well improved; for in 1835 there were twenty saw-mills, three grist-mills, two tanneries, a fulling mill, a carding mill, a trip hammer and a Baptist church, each utilizing this power.

These tributaries are fed by the innumerable springs that burst from every hillside and bubble up from every field. The valleys through which these streams find their way are all narrow, and separated by hill ranges radiating in irregular directions. Many of these hillsides and summits are heavily wooded, although the primeval forests of the valleys have long since yielded to the ax of the pioneer and been swept away by the ever rising, ever restless tide of agriculture and commerce.

The soil of these hillsides is a strong clayey and shaley loam, admirably adapted to grazing. The dark, rich alluvial belts along the streams and on the river's marge are easily tilled and yield heavy crops of cereals. Many sections of the uplands are exceedingly stony, and in the best cultivated districts the farms are entirely fenced with stones. Many of these fences are nothing less than long piles of boulders and shale rock. It is not unusual to see these stone walls three or four feet thick and five feet high on the slopes where the hugh stone beds are deposited.

TOWN RECORDS

At the first town meeting held in the new town, pursuant to the act erecting the town, a full set of officers were elected excepting justice of the peace. The following is the civil list for the year: --Supervisor, Daniel H. Burr; town clerk, Cornelius Bassett; assessors - Aaron Hull, Edward Sands, Joshua Morse; overseers of the poor, -- John Waterbury, Edward Sands; commissioners of highways - John Shaver, Daniel Waterbury, James Keif; constables - Jesse Burtch, Shepherd Miller, Cornelius C. Griffin; collector - Jesse Burtch; commissioners of schools - Alex. A. Grant, Epenetus Webb, Talmage Waterbury; inspectors of schools - George H. Sands, Lewis Bussy, Isaac Wilson.

Among many quaint and curious entries in the opening records of the new town are the by-laws, which, in the absence of general legislation "were voted and agreed to." It was "Resolved 4thly; That no cattle shall be allowed to run at large within forty rods of any Publick House, Tavern, Grist-mill, Fulling-mill and all the places of Public Business, from the first day of November until the first day of April, under the penalty of one dollar."

"Unanimously agreed that the next town meeting shall be held in the Presbyterian Meeting House in Trempersville in said town of Andes."

The year after the erection of this town the electors took part in the election of a governor. This was before the railways and telegraphs had taught people to be in haste to reach results, and so the casting of the ballots and the canvass of them were matters attended to with the greatest deliberation. On the 27th of April, 1820, the board met "to canvass the votes given and taken at the general election held in this town on the last Tuesday in April, 1820, and the two succeeding days, and we certify that for governor there were 76 votes cast. Daniel D. Tompkins received 56, Dewitt Clinton received 20.

"In testimony whereof, we, the said inspectors of elections, have hereunto respectively subscribed our proper names this 26th day of April, 1820.
"Daniel H. Burr,
"Aaron Hull,
"Joshua Moss."

Now that the new town had a new name it seemed fitting to rechristen the little village, but exactly when or how it was done does not appear. The change, however, is recognized in the record of the by-laws of the town "voted and agreed to at the town meeting of March 1, 1821": "Firstly - That the next town meeting be held in the Presbyterian Meeting House in the village of Andes."

The following is a full list of supervisors and town clerks from the organization of the town to the present time, a period of fifty-nine years:

Supervisors. --- 1820-22, Daniel H. Burr; 1823, Cornelius Bassett; 1824, Daniel H. Burr; 1825, Cornelius Bassett; 1826, John Waterbury; 1827, 1828, C. Bassett; 1829, John Waterbury; 1830-35, Cyrus Burr; 1836, 1837, Marcus T. Peake; 1838, C. Burr; 1839-45, George Thompson ; 1846, 1847, Richard Morse; 1848, 1849, John Gladstone; 1850, 1851, Silas D. Hilton; 1852, 1853, John George; 1854, 1855, Hon. Richard Morse; 1856, 1857, James Dickson; 1858, 1859, John P. Benjamin ; 1860, 1861, Andrew Haw_er; 1862-71, William B. Dowie; 1872, Richard Morse; 1873, James F. Scott, the present incumbent.

Town Clerks. --- 1820, 1821, Cornelius Bassett; 1822, Aaron Hull; 1823, 1824, John Waterbury; 1825, Jesse Burtch; 1826, Edward Sands; 1827-29, Moses Paine; 1830-55, Peter Penet; 1856, Edward Sands; 1857, 1858, Archibald Shaw; 1859, George E. Hunting; 1860-62, E.W.Shafer; 1863-77, James A. McNee; 1878, E.W. Shafer, and since the election of 1879 John B. Roberts.

EARLY SETTLERS AND THEIR EXPERIENCES

The first settlements in the territory that lies within the present town of Andes were made about 1770, by several families from Dutchess county and southern portions of New England. They reached their places of settlement, near the present site of Shavertown, and the valley above, by the east branch of the Delaware, the only thorougfare that broke through the interminable jungle which fettered the valleys and the hillsides.

When the war of the Revolution became inevitable, their safety or their sympathies took them from their rude homes, and many of them never returned to save their names from oblivion. Their deeds and their dates are, strictly speaking, traditions, which the most careful research has not been able to raise to the dignity of history.

The first permanent settlements were made soon after the revolution, by a few of the former settlers who returned, and other families of Dutch, Scotch and German origin. They found here a few of the Delaware Indians, who were principally located down the river. They were peaceable, and even friendly. They had paid very little attention to agriculture, and all that is left to record their existence ---- save their buried bones ---- are a few old apple trees, which tradition says they planted, and the occasional arrowheads or rude flint tomahawks which the plowman's share exhumes.

In 1781 three pioneers settled at Shavertown, and their numerous descendants have ever since been identified with the industries of this valley. They were Jacob and John Shaver (the same family name is frequently written Shafer), from Dutchess county, and Philip Barnhart, from Schoharie county.

The first settler back from the river was Robert Nicholson, who came about 1790. Two years after he sent for his family to join him in the home he had prepared three miles up the Tremper kill, the stream which empties into the east branch at Shavertown. The next year Philip Shaver, father of Colonel Adam Shaver and grandfather of George W. Shafer, came from Dutchess county and located on the farm now owned by James Collins. The family, consisting of the father, the mother and four small children, took the overland route, and, with only one horse and no vehicle, they managed to load the beast with such provision as would serve for the journey, and such personal effects as they were to depend upon in beginning the struggle that everywhere awaited the pioneer. The same year Thomas More made a clearing on this stream.

While the settlements were multiplying on the Tremper kill, other families were settling above and below the Shaver settlement, on the east branch and back from the river, up the valleys of other tributaries. The Burr family, from Fairfield county, Connecticut, moved to Delaware county in1794, and settled on Dingle Hill, on the farm and near the present residence of Luther D. Jackson. Jehu Burr, the head of this family, was employed to survey the Hardenbergh lands lying between the east and west branches, and he made a pen map of this immense tract, which is still often referred to in courts as the best authority in relation to lines and boundaries. James Phenix, who had been here a short time before the Revolution, returned to his clearing, near where the present boundary between Andes and Middletown crosses the east branch. The next farm down the river was settled by Elijah Olmsted. The next farm down the river had been located during the Revolution by Peter Burgher, who had succeeded in making friends with the Indians, but in some unintended way he had provoked their displeasure and was obliged to flee for safety. Late in the autumn of the same year he ventured to return, in hopes of securing his crops, but was shot by an Indian in ambush while threshing buckwheat in the open field. The next farm toward Shavertown was occupied by James Erskine, a soldier who had been in the American army after being taken prisoner from the British.

The farm now occupied by the Muir brothers was settled in 1797 by Mark Summers, who also took possession of the farm below.

Silas Parish, from Dutchess county, and Eli Sears were the heads of two other families, now extinct, that were among the settlers of this decade.

The settlers back from the river and up the Tremper kill thus far mentioned had reached the place by the river route, but during these years settlers had located in the northern part of the town, at what is now known as Palmer Hill and Gladstone Hollow. One of these was Aaron Hull, who came by the way of the west branch to where is now Delhi, thence up the Little Delaware to the present town of Bovina, and over the hill by Tunis lake to the farm now owned by Mrs. Margaret Craig, one mile north of present village of Andes. His nearest neighbor to the south was Jonathan Earl, a soldier of the revolution, who in 1795 had taken the farms, one mile south of the village, now owned by John R. Newkirk and Robert McNair. These two families lived for a year or more unknown to each other, until one evening Mr. Earl, while looking for his cow, that had strayed up to what was then the swamp, now the site of the village, found her in company with Mr. Hull's cattle, that he was driving home from their browse pasture. Of these two men Earl was the ancestor of the generations that were conspicuous in the Anti-Rent war, and, with several of his family, is buried on the farm where he lived. Hull committed suicide in 1845, and has no descendants among the present residents of the town.

There were a few settlers in the secluded valleys remote from the principal clearings who came during the Revolution. They were generally Yankees from the Eastern States and the northern counties, and from their manner of living it was understood that they were deserters from the army, or fugitives who made the forest their shelter and retreat. At the close of the war, some who had been in open sympathy with the British found it unpleasant to continue their abode among the friends of the patriots, now victorious and independent. Thus the vicissitudes of war drove civilization to some remote quarters where under the benign influence of peace it might not even yet have penetrated.

During the last years of that century the business of rafting was begun on the east branch. This industry furnished occupation for the men and older boys, while the women were engaged in spinning and weaving linen; for it must be noted that the Yankees who came brought not only their wives and daughters, but another important item not found on the inventory of baggage, the habits and customs of their ancestors. So the flax was sown and the spinning wheel and loom were in nearly every home.

The women of those simple times, not so to vote and hold office as some of their great-granddaughters, had more time to furnish food for the household in the exercise of their right to catch fish from the streams, which were well stocked.

There was an Indian trail, from the east branch over the hills to the eastward, and by this the settlers were able to reach a better road, leading to the Hudson river. Over this trail many a settler has gone on foot to Esopus, and returned with a back load of salt, which commodity it will be remembered was the only necessity to their simple mode of life that was not produced in the settlements.

The struggles and deprivations which the pioneers of any country undergo are all too apt to be overlooked and forgotten. We go each year with tears and roses to the graves of the nation's dead, and manifest our respect for their memories and our appreciation of the value of their sacrifices; but we never ask to be shown the unmarked mound where lie the ashes of those sturdy men and noble women whose heroic deeds on bloodless fields were the morning twilight and the dawn of that day of civilization whose noon their descendants are now enjoying.

Let posterity never do less for the honor of those who shed blood to save the nation, but let the generations to come do more to respect and preserve the memory of those who shed sweat to make it!

SETTLEMENTS SINCE 1800

The first ten years of the present century brought to these valleys the men who stamped with their own peculiar individualities the age and generation in which they lived, and whose names are interwoven with the beginning of the principal enterprises that since have been sources of credit or profit to the people.

In 1803 Joshua Morse settled in the valley of the Tremper kill, on the farm now owned by William Scott, and about the same time William Akerly made a clearing on the widow Close place, a mile or two down the stream. Some five years previous Ebenezer B. Washburn, from New England, had settled on the present farm of O.E. Miner, still further toward the mouth of the stream. He brought sixteen apple trees from the Hudson valley, and set out the first orchard on that farm, and doubtless the first on the stream. Mr. Morse's arrival was the result of a curious mistake on his part. It appears from his son, the now venerable Richard Morse, of this town, whose extensive knowledge of early days has been of great value to the writer, that his father, Joshua, started from the southern part of Dutchess county to go to Onondaga county, to take half of a section of land which his brother-in-law owned. He took the boat up the Hudson, intending to land at Catskill, and thence go overland to Syracuse, but by mistake landed at Rondout, and so got on the wrong route. He had gone full forty miles before he learned that he was on the trail leading toward the Middletown settlements. He then concluded to press his way westward and visit his old friend Washburn. The result of his visit has already been mentioned in his settlement. After selecting his farm he wrote to his friends in Dutchess county that there were not loose stones enough on the farm to build a chimney, and he actually hauled stones from the Earl farm, nearly a mile away, with which to build one. The autumn fire had never run through these woods, as it occasionally had in other vicinities, and the vast accumulation of mold and leaves doubtless deceived him; for the fact is the farm has since been nearly all fenced with the stones found on it, and there is a single field on which there are stones enough to build a tower of Babel. Nathaniel Burtch was an early settler on the farm of Peter King, on the Tremper kill.

Among those who settled in the northern part of the present town of Andes during this decade was Daniel Waterbury, on a farm south of the village. He planted there the first orchard on the line of the old turnpike between Andes and Cabin Hill. On the same farm he enclosed the cemetery south of Walter T. Armstrong's, and there he was buried at the close of a useful and eventful life. His son Daniel was a local preacher of Presbyterian proclivities, and was for years the pastor of the now extinct Presbyterian church.

About this times James Van Zandt took up the Thomas Hyzer farm, although his son-in-law made the clearing and built the house, living for the season in part of a double log house built by Ezra Benedict, who, some time before, had settled the Peter Dickson farm, north of there.

Although these early settlements on the turnpike were in a favorable locality for a village, yet the head of the valley was destined to become the business center.

Israel Chapman settled where now is the south end of the village, and built a house near the site of the present residence of James F. Scott. He was one of the pioneers of Methodism in this part of Delaware county, and for years a local preacher among the people, who worshiped in private houses and school buildings before the era of church building.

The next building was a log house, begun by a squatter named Walker, and bought and finished by Ebenezer Bassett very early in the decade of which we are writing. At nearly the same time Peter Hyzer, father of Abram Hyzer and grandfather of the present thrifty generation of Hyzers, settled just north of Bassett and built a house near where now is the residence of David Burroughs. He went on foot and brought on his back from Shavertown all the boards which he used in the building. Another experience of his, doubtless true of other settlers, was going on foot, over the Indian trail route, to 'Sopus, full sixty miles distant, and returning at evening of the third day with a bushel of salt on his shoulder.

The first painted house in Andes was built by Edward Sands, on the site of the Bramley house. on High street. The house was red, and for years it was the only painted one in the village.

The years between 1827 and 1835 witnessed a marked change in the population of the town. Previous to this the settlers had been largely of German extraction, or Yankees from the East; but after them was the great inroad of the Scotch element, which so largely predominates in Gladstone Hollow and other thickly settled portions of the town. Although the Yankees had done the most to establish the elements of thrift and prosperity, the Scotch, with their steady habits, their great longevity, and indomitable perseverance, have added the most substantial element to the present population of the town.

The tendencies of population in the town for the last forty-five years are shown by the following figures, indicating the number of inhabitants at several State censuses, as given in the "Manual" of the Legislature: 1835, 2,109; 1840, 2,176; 1845, 2,440; 1850, 2,672; 1855, 2,536, 1860, 2,990; 1865, 2,815; 1870, 2,840; 1875, 2,711.

MILLS AND TANNERIES.

At a date more remote than the erection of the town of Andes Israel Chapman built the first grist-mill on the Tremper kill. It was located on the west side of Main street, near the residence of Dr. Peabody. The pond covered the flats in front of the Collegiate Institute, and a side wall was built to prevent the overflow of the street, and extended north of the present residence of James Muir. Peter Penet, who had come from Shenectady county to try farming, abandoned his farm business and spent most of his life in this mill.

The second grist-mill was built by John Vaughn, some years later, only a short distance south of Chapman's. In 1824 Mr. Chapman built a second mill on his old site. The building was subsequently, and until 1872, used for a cooper shop, and the frame is now in William Laing's wagon house.

The first saw-mill on this stream was erected by John Vaughn in 1811. Phineas Gibbs, father of John Gibbs, was a Boston Yankee, who came to Andes in 1820. He was the first cooper in the town, and used to go to the swamp east of the cemetery and cut tub staves from the old pines that had long lain partially embedded in the mud. His house and shop were on the place now owned by lawyer Johnson. The stone cooperage at the head of Main street was built by Webb & Dickson in 1831, and was used for a tannery until quite recently. Charles Kind owned it for a time, and John C. Bohlman carried on the tanning business in it from 1839 to 1843. In 1846 the combustible parts were burned, and in the following year it was rebuilt. It is now owned by Duncan Ballantine.

Prior to the erection of the stone cooperage, Epenetus Webb built a tannery south of E. A. Worden's residence, using horse power to grind the tan bark.

An important industry was begun in an early day by John, son of Daniel Waterbury. He erected a carding and cloth dressing establishment where Thomas Muir's planing-mill is situated. It was the plan in those days to bring the wool to be carded into rolls and then, after spinning them into yarn and weaving the cloth in the hand loom, the cloth was returned to the mill to be dressed. In this mill a string of teaseIs was used for napping the cloth.

This became a business of good proportions, and in 1836 Ezra Waterbury came into possession of the mill. In 1848 William Ladd bought it, and was the proprietor for six years. He then sold it to Hiram Scutt. who operated it until 1874, when the business of carding was abandoned and Thomas Muir bought the building.

The tannery now carried on by John C. Bohlman was erected by him in 1843.

The farm now owned by the Muir brothers includes a mill site that had one of the very early grist-mills. A saw-mill there, built by Abram Nelson was operated until about 1845. The remains of the old dam are all that marks this once important but now extinct branch of industry. Abram Nelson was the father of the late Reuben Nelson, D. D., senior manager, Methodist Book Concern, at New York. Dr. Nelson as born on the farm now owned by the Muir brothers.

Previous to the erection of any of the mills already mentioned, a mill was built on the east branch near Whitney's farm by Jacob Dubois, and was operated for more than forty years as the Dubois Mill. Seven or eight years later John Francisco erected one above Shavertown.

Old Uncle Billy Hutchins built a kind of tannery on the farm now occupied by Oscar Shaver, as early as 1802. He crushed the bark under a huge log roller on a flat rock by horse power. What has been long known as the Hawver tannery was built by Samuel McCabe & Sons, in 1832. Ten years afterward it was destroyed by fire and rebuilt. It was again destroyed by fire in 1878, with a large stock of finished and unfinished leather.

The saw-mill now standing on the east branch at Shavertown was built by Jacob P. Shafer, in 1830. It is now the property of Judge Gleason, of Delhi.

About 1821 Solomon Shaver built a stone shop With trip hammer, on the spot now occupied by Thomas Muir's house in the village of Andes.

The only grist-mill in the town now being operated is one on the kill below Andes village. It was erected about 1847, by Henry Dowie.

There are several valuable mill seats on the Barkaboom stream. Eli Sears built a saw-mill there near the east branch in 1801.

In 1848 Jenkins & Mekeel built another, further up the stream, and in 1857 Andrew Hawver went still further above and erected a mill, that is now standing.

The last mill on this stream was built in 1868, on the upper mill seat, by R. M. Hanmer.

There are now three saw-mills on the kilI--E. A. Liddle's, O. E. Miner's and the one near Shavertown belonging to the Shafer Brothers, erected in 1824 by Peter Shafer.

INNS, DISTILLERIES, ETC.

The first inn within the present town of Andes was the log house at Tremperville which we have mentioned as the early residence of Peter Bassett.

It stood on the site of the Andes Union Hotel. Very soon after Mr. Bassett got possession of it he enlarged it to the then almost palatial size, and for years he dispensed good hash, good whiskey and good cheer among the hungry, the thirsty and the disheartened. This afterward became the property of Moses Paine, who surprised people by his extravagant notion of making it still larger by the addition of a framed annex. But Paine knew the tricks of the trade, and so long as he could keep the whole business in his own hands it was no trifling affair; for he foresaw that as the turnpike was then built the stage horn would sooner or later be the magic signal to summon commerce and manufacture to this valley, and shillings and pence to his money bags.

About sixty years ago Thomas Card's house, on the farm of Daniel Waterbury, was used as an inn.

On the lower side of the turnpike, opposite his house, he had a still, which in that thirsty age was a very important auxiliary to a well kept tavern.

The Union Hotel, now kept by Peter Crispell, was erected in 1833 on the site of the old double log tavern. Richard Woolsey kept a hotel at Shavertown as early as 1827.

Ezra Benedict built the Upper hotel, and subsequently sold it to Benjamin Connor. Ephriam B. Hunting owned it from 1839 to 1857, and during the Anti-Rent war it was the headquarters of the "Tories." It was at this hotel that Deputy-Sheriff Steele took his last drink before going to the sale, and to this hotel his body was brought on a stretcher the following morning. The last proprietor were Dennis & Derby, who closed it as a hotel in 1875. The Central Hotel now owned by Robert C. Scott, of Bovina, was built by Francis Heimer for a dwelling and paint store. Henry Field converted it into a hotel about fifteen years ago. It is now kept by Pratt Chamberlin, who has been in charge since 1877.

There was a distillery on High street about 1823, owned by Isaac B. Sands and operated by Thomas Card. It stood on the site of Andrew Glendenning's house. Mr. Sands afterward put up an ashery, which at that time was quite an important industry. The custom of the early day was to gather the ashes from the burned log heaps and sell them at these asheries, of which there were several, where they were made into potash and pearlash for the market. The ashes were worth one shilling per bushel.

PROMINENT LOCALITIES.

CABIN HILL.

This locality, in the northwestern part of the town, was named by the workmen on the old 'Sopus turnpike, which extended from where is now Kingston to Ithaca, passing through this town from the east branch up Bryant Hollow, over Palmer Hill, through the village of Andes and by the way of this hill into Bovina. At this summit the workmen found a large overhanging rock, under which a dozen men might easily take shelter. They had only to enclose the open sides of this rock or cave to form a suitable cabin, and so it was called Cabin Rock; from this the name soon came to be applied to the place, and now there is no local geographical name more generally known than Cabin Hill.

The first settlement here was made by John McGibbon, in 1804, on the farm now owned by the McGibbons. Alexander More settled the Cabin Rock farm two years later, getting a deed from the executors of Gulian Verplank by Ebenezer Foote, their attorney and agent.

A log school-house was erected on this farm in 181 l, and at that time was the only one nearer than Shavertown. It stood near the present site of the United Presbyterian church. Another school-house was built on the John D. Imrie farm, and was burned in 1836. The old building yet standing took its place, and was used until 1873. when it was abandoned and the present neat edifice erected.

The Cabin Hill post-office was established in 1829. Andrew Marshall was appointed postmaster November 9th, 1832, and served until 1851, when he was succeeded by his son James, who has since distributed the weekly mail

Mr. Marshall has kept a country store here since 1837, from which he has dispensed among the people the necessaries of life, which in the early days were thought to include whiskey as well as flour.

John Imrie kept a provision store, and on his books ought to be found this entry: "July, 13th, 1834. The church treasury debtor, to 5 gallons O. R., to finish the raising with, at 2s. 6d., $1.56." Although the good old temperance men like Amos Wamsley, men whose numbers have since increased, tried hard to raise the church on a more orthodox drink, the weak dilution of molasses and vinegar was not the drink of that age; and so when the huge bents were pinned together they were found to be altogether too heavy for the kind of stimulus furnished, and before they could be set up the old rye had to be sent for. Rev. Arney S. Biddie, who has furnished the history, of the Cabin Hill United Presbyterian Church, has followed the more conservative tradition; but from some old men still living, whose taste and memories are as reliable as ever, we are obliged to believe that old rye did the business.

Wamsley lake in this district is a pretty little lake among the hills. The farm on which it is situated, and where A. Sutherland, Esq., now resides, was settled by William Wamsley. Other early settlements were made, on the farm of Alexander Shaw by Paul Basley, and by Robert Mason on the George Sutherland farm.

In 1827 John George, a son of James George and Elizabeth King, of Perthshire, Scotland, came on a prospecting tour, and his impression of the new world led his parents to follow him the next year. Their family of nine children made a noticeable accession to the sparse population of that early day. All that generation are living except the oldest, James (D. D., whose last years were spent in the pastorate of the Presbyterian church at Stratford, Canada), and his brother Peter.

A curious coincidence in the history of this family is the birth of seven of the present generation--James, John, Peter, William, Ann (Mrs. David Taylor), Elizabeth (Mrs. William Garrick), Christina (Mrs. Adam L. Cowan)-- all in the month of November, the first and last three on the eighth day of the month.

David first settled at Fall Clove, and Margaret (Mrs Andrew Nicoll) lives in Iowa.

Between Cabin Hill and the valley of the Tremper kill is a highway known as the State road. Early settlements were made in this vicinity by Joshua Northrup, Andrew Munroe, Evan Samuels, John McGregor, and in 1828 David Taylor, whose son James owns the present mill on this farm.

The U. P. Church of Cabin Hill.--Previous to the year 1833, almost all persons living in the territory of what is now called Cabin Hill, and possessing Presbyterian predilections, worshiped at the Flats Church, which was presided over by Rev. Mr. Maxwell. Most of these families had emigrated from Scotland, determined to secure here that independence and elbow room which they, could not secure at home. Mr. Maxwell's time was divided between the church in which the Rev. Mr. Robinson now preaches, and a smaller and less pretentious building, situated near Mr. John Thompson's. Mr. Maxwell was accustomed to ride on horseback to this latter church, called the Second, and hitch his horse to a beech tree while he conducted tile services. This tree, or the remains of it, can be pointed out by many, who have a destinct recollection of the circumstances. This arrangement of worshiping in the two churches worked very well for a time, until the Second church got somewhat out of repair, and the eastern part of the congregation began to think that something better was needed; and withal, they wanted something more convenient to the eastern section. For this and other causes the members began to cast about them for some way to better their condition.

On the 20th day of June, 1833, the eastern part of the congregation met at the school-house, then near the present residence of William A. Sutherland. At this meeting Mr. Andrew Marshall was chosen chairman, and William A. Wamsley clerk. It was unanimously resolved to build a "church on the corner of the land of Andrew Marshall, next to Alexander More, and that James George: William Henderson and Robert Craig be appointed a committee to have a talk with the trustees of the western part of the Second congregation, to see if they are willing to unite with the eastern part, further to the east, in building a church;" and if they were, how far they would be willing to come.

On the 13th of July the eastern division met again at the same place as before, but no satisfactory. answer had been returned from the western division.

The Rubicon was now about to be crossed, and the prime movers in these meetings had another one called for the 30th day of July, and it was unanimously resolved that the meeting be organized into a congregation, to be called the Presbyterian Church of Cabin Hill.

The names of these first members are as follows: John Darling and wife Catharine Darling, widow Janet Penny, Alexander Penny, John Malloch and his wife Jane Ma!loch, William White and his wife Elizabeth, widow Elizabeth Potts, Andrew Scott and EIlinor J. Scott, Daniel Smith and wife Ellen, John Cairns and wife, John Dougall and wife Sarah, Daniel Fraser and wife Helen, John Dougall, jr., Andrew Dougall, Catharine Dougall, Andrew Marshall, Robert Craig and wife, William Henderson.and wife Jane, John Olliver, Andrew McGibbon, John McGibbon, Amos Wamsley, Mary Wamsley, Anson S. Cobb and wife Nancy, Margaret Imrie, Peter Belfrage, Ellinor Cowan, Betsy Whitson, Isabel Bleakie, Andrew Cowan and wife Helen, Thomas Hutchison and wife Sarah, William Craig, Ann McFarland, Charlotte lmrie, John Crawford and wife, James Murphy and wife.

At this time five trustees were elected--Robert Craig and Andrew Marshall to serve for three years, Amos Wamsley and Andrew McGibbon to serve for two years, and William Henderson to serve for one year. It was "resolved that Rev. E. K. Maxwell be given the preference over all others to preach in said meeting-house, and that he be invited hereby hereby accordingly." But the new organization showed its Christian liberality by extending the privilege of preaching in the church to any Christian denomination.

There was a meeting of the trustees October 19th, at the house of Andrew Marshall, and after mature deliberation it was resolved that the dimensions of the house be 36 by 46 feet. The church was erected in 1834. In looking over the subscription list we find that quite a large proportion was to be paid in work, from which we infer that muscle was more abundant than money. There are two lists. Comparing these, we find that John Darling and Amos Wamsley contributed $50 each, and so head the roll.

An odd incident happened in convection with the raising of the church. In those good old days, when there were "bees," or raisings, it appears to have been thought necessary to use liquor; but in this particular case it was decided, through the influence of .Amos Wamsley and others, that a mixture of molasses, vinegar and water be substituted, which was placed under a shade tree. But a cow, not having the fear of man before her eyes, watched her opportunity and drank up the mixture. Mr. Wamsley's reputation as a temperance reformer will be handed down from one generation to another in connection with this event.

On the 11th of April, 1855, it was settled that "application be made to Rev. James Laing for what he can give, consistently, until we make other arrangements." On the 4th of May, 1835, the congregation resolved to apply to the Associate Reformed .Presbytery of Saratoga for the time of Mr. Laing for one-half the time for the ensuing year. Amos Wamsley was delegate and his petition was granted. Mr. Laing's first sermon was from Mathew v, 3. Peter Belfrage, Anson.S. Cobb, Andrew Scott and Robert Craig were elected elders July 30th, 1835.

CABIN HILL U. P. CHURCH--FALL CLOVE.

The congregation was not able to put pews into the church, and the members, not being burdened with worldly pride, could enjoy a good sermon even though they sat on a plank seat.

Mr. Thomas Scott and Miss Cobb were the first children baptized in this congregation. Mr. Laing was called to take permanent charge of this congregation on the 15th day of August, 1838, for one half his time. This call was accepted and he was installed on the 12th of December. The share of Mr. Laing's .salary was $50. The congregation bore an equal share with Andes, this amount was afteward raised to $200 for the years 1855 and 1856. In 1857 it was made $225, and in 1858, the year of his death, the congregation paid his widow $250, although he had preached only six months of the current year. Mr. Laing remained pastor of both congregations until his death, in November, 1858. During the ten years of his pastorate he received $1,994.11. Mr. Laing's last sermon was from Matthew ii, 18, in connection with Jeremiah xxxi, 15.

The pulpit was vacant until June, 1859, when Rev. J. E. Taylor came to it. He was installed in September. The congregation was now self-supporting. It paid Mr. Taylor $550, which at the time was as large as was paid by any congregation in the presbytery.

Mr. Taylor remained pastor for seven years, when the charge was again made vacant by his resignation. There were various supplies; prominent among these was Peter Smeallie, of Andes Academy. He was an energetic worker. The last Sabbath he preached his horse ran away from him, and he probably overheated himself in trying to secure it, for on the following Monday he died, after an illness of a very few hours. Rev. James Smeallie, his brother, pastor of North Kortright congregation, came to settle his affairs. While at Andes he preached at Cabin Hill. The congregation, being pleased with him, gave him a call at a salary of $800 per year. He entered upon his work with vigor, and the people were ready to conclude that the golden age had come to Cabin Hill. No doubt all hoped that their pastor might long be spared to go in and out before them and break unto them the bread of life, but God decreed otherwise, and in August, 1868, after a brief illness his spirit returned to the God who gave it.

The congregation was now supplied for a time by itinerants. The vacancy continued until the 19th of October, 1870, when Rev. A. F. Ashton was installed pastor. His pastorate extended over a period of about three years, during which time the congregation built the parsonage. In the spring of 1874 Mr. Ashton presented his resignation, which was accepted, and the congregation was without a pastor until September 21st, 1875, when Rev. Arney S. Biddie was ordained and installed. This. relation continued, with great profit to the spiritual interests of the people, until February, 1879, when he accepted a call to the First U. P. Church of Jersey City. The congregation has no regular supply at this date, August, 1870.

FALL CLOVE.

The principal stream of this valley rises in Wamsley lake and flows south, reaching the east branch at Colchester. School district No. 1 here was originally included with Cabin Hill, but about 1826 a school-house was built on the farm now owned by William Aikens.

This was burned in 1830, and an old building on the James Darling farm was rented for two years.

They then erected a frame house, which was replaced in 1853 by the present building.

The oldest records of this district are of November 29th, 1842, when "Robert Craig was hired as teacher for 3 months at $12 per month." "Hired said Craig ten days more at same proportion he had for month, $5. Public money, $34.54; library, $8.63."

The first settlement in this valley was made by Reuben Barnes, the father of Amos Barnes, in 1773, on the place now owned by Aikens. This is as early as any date in the town which we are able to verify.

When Mr. Barnes came he found a small clearing where the Indians had erected a rude house and planted an orchard. There is an apple tree yet standing south of Mr. Aikens's house which the old people believe was one of the original trees. Mr. Barnes made a satisfactory bargain with the Indians to "go away and forever leave Reuben Barnes and his family in the enjoyment of the apple trees in consideration of one loaf of white bread for each tree." Mr. Barnes was a Connecticut Yankee, and lived in solitude for a quarter of a century. His only descendants are George Barnes, of Pennsylvania, and Orrin Barnes, of Colchester.

Other early settlers here were Andrew Cowan, father of Adam L. Cowan, who located on the George Stott farm in 1817, and Gilbert Northrup on the James Darling farm in 1824.

The George Potts farm was settled by Robert Campbell and his son David about 1818. This farm was the property of David Campbell at his death, and as he was an alien the property escheated to the State, and Elizabeth Campbell Potts, mother of the present owner, bought it at the State sale.

The oldest building now standing in the valley is the stone house on this farm. John Mallock, sen., from Albany county, settled in 1810 on the William Richelton farm, and in 1821 Joseph Blakie settled the Blakie homestead, now owned by his son Robert.

This is a fine farming section, and among several thorough, enterprising farmers are George Stott, John Scott, Robert Blakie and George Potts.

The cemetery at Fall Clove is one of the oldest burying places in the town, having been an Indian graveyard years ago. The older graves of white men are unremembered and unmarked. The oldest tablet here is the brown field stone that marks the grave of the first settler. It is broken off and covered with moss, but the rude inscription, the date "181" (probably intended for 1801) tells the date of the death of Reuben Barnes. Mr. Colgate, who settled the farm of John Hudson, is buried here. He was the grandfather of the great soap manufacturers of New York.

PLEASANT VALLEY.

This name has been appropriately applied to the valley between the villages of Andes and Shavertown. The early settlements have been mentioned as on Tremper's kill, the stream flowing through the valley.

A school was established here early by the families of Shaver, Washburn and their contemporaries. It was kept in a shop on the Collins place until a log school-house could be built on the Perch lake road, some thirty rods from the valley road. Daniel Waterbury was an early teacher in this district. The first wood ever brought by the district was in 1859. Previous to that the old custom of assigning each pupil one-fourth of a cord had been kept up.

In 1857 it was "motioned to raise $175 to pay for the building the new house." The supervisor consented to the change of site March 9th, 1857, and in October following the old house was sold to O. E. Miner for $5.

Ebenezer Washburn's son Joel was the first white child born in this valley. Ebenezer piper brought the first four-wheeled vehicle into this district, in 1808.

The school-house was used by the Primitive Baptists as a place of worship as early as 1809. Rev. Mr . Woolsey, father of Richard Woolsey, used to preach in William Akerley's house, south of Washington Shaver's and the Rev. Mr Hewit held meetings in a barn that is now a wagon-house,on Major Liddle's farm.

The Pleasant Valley Union Church was erected in 1852, by Edmond Elijah and Ferris Burr. The first board of trustees consisted of Oliver E. Miner, Peter Shaver, Matthew McCabe and David Becker.

For the past few years the Methodist society here has had almost exclusive use of the building, regular weekly services being held by the pastor of the Union Grove Church.

The board of trustees elected in December, 1878, are Abram Bussy, James Davis and Solomon Bussy. There is a thriving Sunday school maintained by this community.

Perch lake, east of this valley, is a lake or immense spring covering about 45 acres. It is from forty to seventy feet deep, and contains nearly every variety of fresh water fish. The first road from Middletown to Andes was the trail over the hill by this lake. The first settlement in this vicinity was made in 1797 by Ezekiel Burgher, on the farm now owned by Calvin Hull. The first paper title given by the landlord was a "three-life lease" by Verplanck to Nicholas Nicholson in 1804. Twenty-four years later the lease was assigned to Ira Hull, who after buying the soil, in 1855, deeded the farm in 1872 to the present owner.

There are two very old orchards in this vicinity. One, set by Nicholson on the Hull farm in 1804, contains some trees full seven feet around. In 1815 Meeker Jackson set the first orchard on William A. Hull's farm.

The Washburn farm, now owned by Elmer Close, was partially cleared by one Jackson in 1812, but the war interrupted him and he never returned. The permanent settlement was made by Samuel Mullinnex, in 1855.

James H. Washburn's farm was settled by Miles Warren in 1845.

The John Liddle farm was settled in 1812 by Ebenezer Hull.

PALMER HILL AND BRYANT HOLLOW

These localities are included in the district 4. The first schoolhouse in this district was on the old Esopus turnpike, on the Bryant farm. This was one of the very early schools, and in 1823 the house was an old, dilapidated building. The earliest records of the district are of the annual meeting of 1825. A religious society was organized here early, for the records of 1827 show that sufficient money was voted to build a frame house 24 by 28 feet for school and religious meetings. this was on Woolsey's place and when it was burned in 1831 another was erected on the same site. The economy of those days may be remarked from this entry:-"June 2nd, 1832--Vendued off the old nails and pot metal belonging to the district. Amount, $3.72." Another building was finished in August, 1841. The present commodious structure was erected in 1874.

In the early days of overland travel, Thomas Bryant kept a wayside inn, built of logs, on the widow Bryant farm. Mr. Bryant bought this farm from the first settler, for forty yards of cloth. At his request he was buried on this farm; his grave is alone, at the right of the road, and right of the brook, as one goes down the valley. He often remarked that he wished to be buried here, that he might overlook his farm.

Among the early settlers here were James Kiff, on the farm of James Fletcher; David Wakeman, on the Worden place, Jonathan Hawkes, grandfather of the present post master, on M. Calhoun's farm; and Samuel Austin on the Fletcher homestead. Mr. Austin's father was Uncle Ike, and at the "bees," by which every considerable job was accomplished. Uncle Ike-too feeble to aid in the labor-was always detailed as quartermaster in charge of the jug.

BUSSY HOLLOW

This locality is named from Lewis Bu... a Frenchman, who settled here in 1816. The first settlement here was made by John Brown about 1800 on the farm now owned by Robert Bussy. In 1810 Joshua Burdick settled on the Bussy homestead, now owned by Abram Bussy. In 1853 this locality was organized as district 24, and the first school was taught by Mariette McCabe, in Fred Pernoud's house. The following season the school house now standing was built on its present site, bought of Mr. Pernoud.

WOLF HOLLOW

This narrow valley, in the northwestern part, is in school district 18. The records include the year 1845, when it was district NO. 7. Some of these entries are in themselves a sufficient commentary on the condition of public schools in the sparsely settled communities even at that late day: "Teachers wages, Miss More, 17 weeks $17. "Publick money $15.74. Library $3.67 "Resolved to have winter skool 1 month. Resolved to have summer one 4 months, 4-5 winter money 1-5 summer money."

"Oct. 2, 1848. Resolved unanimously that the next years publik money shall be devoided in 2 porchans."

In 1866 the school was discontinued, and for nine years no teacher was employed, except for about a year "we tried what they called the free school system, but we found it was not free, and so we voted it down." Since 1875 a school has been maintained.

This locality was first so called by Alexander Grant, a great hunter and trapper who frequented this hollow in quest of game. A wolf that was frequently seen, but always shunned the traps, had become known for miles around as "three-legged wolf." Mr. Grant, who was better known as "Uncle Sandy," set about it to kill this depredator. He led an old horse to a favorable spot, and, as humanely as possible, left him there--an attractive bait for the hungry triped. The following day he cautiously returned, and finding the shy wolf and an invited party of carnivorous guests at their repast, he with one crack of his rifle, made a corpse of the old cripple and gave this hollow the name it bears.

Uncle Sandy had located on what is now Andrew B. Tuttle's farm, and as the bounty for killing wolves was very liberal, amounting at one time from town, county and state to nearly $100 per head, he soon paid for his farm with the fruits of the chase.

The first settler in this district was James Reynolds, from Dutchess county, who located in 1819 on Thomas Liddle's farm.

On this farm Mr. Grant set his peculiar snare, that secured more wolves than any other trapper had been able to capture. He built a close pen and put a lamb and some hay in it, and set his traps on the outside, where the wolves would come trying to get the lamb, and so get caught by dozens.

SHAVER HOLLOW

the first settler in this valley was Elisha A. McUmber, who located in 1838 on the place now owned by Henry butler. The school district organized here was originally a part of the Bussy Hollow district. The school-house was built by Steven Russell, in 1852. The first teacher was Mary Davidson, who taught in the summer of 1858. Joseph Clark was an early settler on the Robert Seath farm. Noah Davis, who settled the James Reynolds farm, cut the first road through this hollow to the valley of the Tremper kill.

UNION GROVE

In the southeastern part of the town of Andes, where the Barkaboom flows into the east branch, is the little hamlet of Union Grove-- a post station with a store, a hotel, some shops, a saw-mill, three churches and a school-house.

Early settlements already mentioned on the east branch above Shavertown were in this vicinity, but on the north side of the river. Opposite Union Grove, on the right bank of the river, are old, well improved farms, but up the valley of the Barkaboom is a newly cleared, sparsely settled tract, which seems to be in a sort of transition state between lumbering and farming, where the one has ceased to pay and the other has not become profitable. The name of this valley is of Indian origin, signifying a birch bridge, and alludes to an immense birch tree which had so fallen as to make a suitable bridge on one of the Indian trails crossing this stream.

The earliest settler here was one Howks, about 1800. This vicinity yielded the best quality of white hemlock, which found market in immense quantities in Philadelphia, where it was quoted separately, and not until 1845 did it appear that there was ever to be a limit to the supply.

With a settlement on the opposite side of the river that is a century old, it seems strange to be able to verify the statement that in the fall of 1869 a bear was killed near Hammer's saw-mill a short distance from the village.

In 1843 school district number 20 was organized here from parts of other districts, and the same year the first school-house was erected. The Union Grove post-office was established here in 1857. The first postmaster was Mr. Chamberlin, who was succeeded by Calvin Madison. In 1861 R. M. Hanmer was appointed, and in 1875 he was succeeded by the present incumbent, S. J. Mason.

Thomas Washburn and Gideon Hawley kept hotels near the site of the village in early days, and then there was a long interval until 1871, when R.E. Hitt erected the present comfortable inn.

The first general store here was opened in 1860 by R. M. Hanmer, who has furnished the writer with many valuable suggestions concerning local events. He was succeeded in 1871 by Silas J. Mason, at present the only merchant in the place.

SHAVERTOWN

This place received its name from the numerous family already mentioned as the earliest settlers here. The lumbering business gave the village whatever of life it possessed. The oldest merchant here was Richard Woolsey, who still keeps a one horse grocery store down the river.

The first school, after the Dutch schools before mentioned, was kept in a plank house near the summer resort of George R. Shafer. The early teachers in it were Lewis Bussy and Maria Dickson. This house was abandoned about 1823, and one built near the old cemetery. This was used for religious purposes also, and in 1856 it was removed to the clove near Richard Woolsey's store. The school district is now number six, and originally included the whole southern part of the town. The present house was erected in 1859.

A post office was established here November 9th, 1828, with John Shaver, 3d., as postmaster.

The first white man's hut on the flats below Shavertown was that of Philip Barnhart in 1781, on the farm of Alfred Barnhart. Their first log house was on the flats also, but after it had been twice inundated by the spring freshets he sought safety on higher ground near the present A. Barnhart house.

On this farm and the John E. Gladstone farm was the old Indian orchard.

The cemetery near the church is on the site of the old Indian burying ground. The bones and hunting knives of the savages are frequently exhumed, and in several cases wrought nails have been found, with which it appeared some rude boxes had been made for the more illustrious of the red men.

The Presbyterian church at Shavertown was organized twenty-eight years ago, as the following document shows:

"To the county clerk of the County of Delaware:--

The undersigned, elders for the Shavertown Presbyterian Church in the town of Andes, do hereby certify that an election pursuant to an act passed April 15th, 1813, for the Incorporation of Religious Societies, was held at the house of John R. Radeker on the 26th day of August, 1851.

"That the following persons--Andrew Hawver, Philip Barnhart, Francis Janes, Aaron Shaver and James M. Wilson--were duly elected trustees of said church, and that these six trustees and their successors in office are now called and known as the trustees of the Shavertown Presbyterian Church in the town of Andes.
Given under our hands and seals this 26th day of August, 1851.
John R. Radeker,
Wm. H. Radeker.
In presence of Thomas Larcom, Minister of Beaverkill Pres. Ch.

The church building was dedicated July 14th, 1852. From that time until January, 1864, Rev. Thomas Larcom was pastor. For the eight succeeding years the pulpit was supplied by Revs. James Bruce, James B. Lee, Norris, Taylor and others. On the 31st of March, 1872, J. F. McLaury, from the New Brunswick Theological Seminary, came as regular supply. He was paid $704 the first year, of which $150 was from the sale of the old Presbyterian church at Andes. He was succeeded in 1877 by Rev. E. M. Knox, who remained until October, 1878. The present pastor is Wilber H. Johnson.

THE VILLAGE OF ANDES

The village of Andes was incorporated in 1861, under the general law of 1847. On the 3d day of January, 1861, at the residence of Archibald Shaw, the electors of the proposed corporation met and voted to incorporate the village. The first charter election was held at the same place on the 29th of June of that year.

The board of officers then elected were: Hon. Richard Morse, Duncan Ballantine, Benjamin Connor, Colonel B. Shafer and William B. Dowie, trustees. The street commissioners were John Davis, Colonel James Oliver and James Dickson.

The assessors were Daniel Hawkes. William Oliver and A. B. Hamilton: treasurer, D. B. Shafer; clerk, James A. McNee; collector, Archibald Shaw.

The village included six hundred and ninety acres.

About the year 1870 the work of improvement upon the streets and walks of the village commenced in real earnest. Generous sums were each year appropriated to lay flagging and to improve the streets. It was necessary to draw the material for walks from Delhi (twelve miles), at a heavy expense; yet the best quality of stone was purchased, and each season the work was pushed forward, thousands of feet of the finest flagging taking the place of dilapidated board walks, until now the entire village is provided for, including substantial and well-kept crossings

On the 26th day of June, 1878, the business part of the village was nearly destroyed by fire, but the burned section has been again filled with good business blocks and residences.

In August, 1879, the village was reincorporated, under the act of 1870, as amended, and on the 9th of August. James F. Scott was elected president, Duncan Ballantine, Adams Bassett and John V. Miller were elected trustees; Daniel Reynolds treasurer, and John B. Roberts clerk.

CORPORATIONS AND SOCIETIES.

THE ANDES WATER COMPANY

This company was organized under the general act of 1873. Application was made and the consent of supervisor and village trustees given July 18th, 1876.

The original incorporators were Duncan Ballantine, John C. Bohlman, Daniel H. Hawkes, Daniel B. Shafer, Daniel Hawkes, Ephraim A. Worden, Edward W. Shafer and Barna Johnson. The capital stock of the company is $6,000, divided into 240 shares of $25 each. The certificate of incorporation was filed in the office of the secretary of State August 1st, 1876.

The first board of directors was Duncan Ballantine, Ephraim A. Worden, Peter N. Bassett. Daniel H. Hawkes, Thomas S. Miller, William Youmans and Barna Johnson. Officers of this board were: President, Duncan Ballantine; vice-president Peter N. Bassett; secretary and treasurer, Daniel H. Hawkes; superintendent, Thomas S. Miller.

The reservoir, situated on the farm of Ephraim A. Worden, is fed by two large springs, is fifty feet square and eight feet deep, holding 120,000 gallons. The water is very cold and pure, and so clear that a pin can be seen in the bottom. The supply is practically unlimited and unchangeable, the severest droughts not affecting it in the least; the cost of thc work entire was $7,000; cost of reservoir, $1,372.08; number of pounds of pipe, 170,000: cost. $2,811.33. The water is conveyed to the village by 332 rods of 6-inch main, and about 100 rods of 3-inch branch and a net work of laterals. The iron was purchased from Campbell, Brick & Co., of New York.

The village of Andes furnished the street hydrants, and exempted the company from taxation for corporation purposes, in consideration of use of water in case of fires.

The present board of directors are Duncan Ballantine, Thomas S. Miller, Barna Johnson, Daniel H. Hawkes, Ephraim A. Worden, Peter N. Bassett and Alexander S. Dowie; and the officers of the same: President. Duncan Ballantine; vice-president, Alexander S. Dowie; secretary and treasurer, Barna Johnson: superintendent, Thomas S. Miller.

Duncan Ballantine, Thomas S. Miller, Daniel H. Hawkes and Barna Johnson have been directors ever since the company was organized, Duncan Ballantine as president, Thomas S. Miller superintendent.

The water falls 160 feet, with a pressure of 81 lbs. on the square inch, which, with the excellent fire department and apparatus, furnish the best facilities for extinguishing fires in the village.

The works of the company are now in excellent condition, the business and finances have been well managed, and it is earning at least six per cent. per annum on its capital stock Rates of insurance have been reduced in the village about 50 per cent. in consequence of the construction of the same, and it is a very commendable and beneficial enterprise, both to individuals and the public, and is a credit to its projectors and worthy the effort of corporations of much greater size and wealth.

FIRE DEPARTMENT

The Andes fire department was organized in March, 1877. It consists of two companies-the Andes Hose Company, No. 1 and Hook and Ladder Company, No. 2-each consisting of 25 men, officered, uniformed and equipped.

The general act of 1847 does not provide for the organization of fire departments without engines, and. as the hydrant pressure in this village is such as to give the requisite elevation to the hose stream, the department has no engine; hence the organization is strictly voluntary. The department is, nevertheless, a very efficient one, and under good discipline.

The two companies hold their meetings independently, and have each a full board of officers. The foreman of the hose company is John B. Roberts; of hook and ladder company, R. M. McCall.

The department officers are Chief engineer, Captain Adams Bassett; assistant engineer, Colonel James Oliver; secretary, James Ballantine; treasurer, Elmer Fletcher.

SAVINGS BANK.

The Youth's Saving Institute was organized in 1858, and was successfully managed for a few years. Daniel B. Shafer was the secretary. The organization was in the interest of the children, who could receive five percent on petty savings. By the posthumous papers it appears that the number of depositors at one time was seventy-eight, and the amount of the deposits $356.50. The failure of William B. Dowie, the president and one of the originators of the scheme, closed the career of this association.

THE ANDES AND DELPH TELGRAPH COMPANY.

This company was organized in May, 1876, with a capital Stock of 110 shares at $10 each, and on the 1st day of June the first message was sent over the wire, and Andes was placed in communication with the rest of mankind. Eighty-five per cent of the stock is owned in Andes, the balance in Delhi.

The line is thirteen miles long, with a station at Lake Delaware. The enterprise was original with Andes, although several business men of Delhi assisted materially in the project. Its advantages to Andes have been manifold, and the stock has paid a fair dividend each year.

The officers of the company since its organization are Duncan Ballantine, president; F. G. Barkley, secretary; James F. Scott, treasurer.

NATIONAL BANK

The First National Bank of Andes was organized on the 29th of January, 1864, under the national banking act of February 25th, 1863, the number of the bank being 302. Its capital stock was $60,000, divided into shares of $100 each. The capital has never been increased nor a share of the stock ever been in the market.

During the few first months this association did business in the store building now occupied by James Ballantine; but the bank building on Main street was soon completed, and before the end of the year the business was permanently located in the present commodious structure.

The bank is furnished with an extra large fire-proof vault and two heavy safes, with double combination lock and Yale time attachment. The stock yields a four per cent dividend in July and a four and one-half per cent in January of each year. The first officers were the present incumbents, Duncan Ballantine, president; James F. Scott, cashier.

BAND

The Andes cornet band is a brilliant young band of fifteen pieces, organized and supplied in November, 1878. The present officers are: Charles W. Bohlman, president; W. W. Hammond, vice-president; Elmer Fletcher, secretary; J. Dickson, treasurer and leader; John B. Roberts, Walter T. Armstrong and William R. Seacord, trustees. The band is under the instruction of Emory Coe, of Hamden.

THE HALL

Bassett's Hall, erected by Peter N. Bassett in 1877, is a prominent building of the village, and one of the best public halls in the county. A part of the frame is the old Presbyterian church that stood on the hill east of Main street. This old church was erected about 1818 by the Presbyterian society which was organized in 1801. The site was a large one, from lands originally owned by Ebenezer, the grandfather of the present owner, and had a front on Main street from Daniel B. Shafer's residence south to the residence of Hon. R. Morse. The society that owned the property has been long extinct, and the last surviving member, George N. Clinton, united with the Methodist Episcopal church in 1871.

The building was occupied by the Baptist and Associate Reformed churches for a time, and then was unoccupied for several years before it was moved to the present site of the hall. Addition was made to the frame, making the building 30 by 71 feet, and a subsequent enlargement made rooms for the accommodation of the fire department.

THE PRESS

The first paper published in Andes was founded by Rev. Peter Smeallie, who came to Andes in 1864 as principal of the Collegiate Institute. He purchased a Smith press from the Republican at Delhi, and upon it was printed a twelve by eighteen folio, edited by his pupils. The first number of The Student was issued September 5th, 1866. The publisher was Albert D. Hitchcock, a practical printer, then a student and since on the Binghamton Republican. The first editors were Clark L. McCracken, now pastor of the U. P. church at Thompsonville, Conn., and Edward McKee, now pastor at Harshasville, O.

Mr. Smeallie died February 4th, 1867, and was succeeded by his brother Rev. James M. Smeallie, who enlarged the paper to a quarto.

A press was subsequently purchased by A. D. Hitchcock, who enlarged it to a 19x26 folio weekly, and changed the name to the Andes Recorder. The first number was issued December 5th, 1867. The ringing editorials in the first six numbers of the Recorder were from the trenchant pen of Rev. James Bruce. After that the literary work was principally done by Bryson Bruce, who purchased an interest in the paper. In July. 1868, Mr. Hitchcock retired, and his partner became sole editor and proprietor.

In August, 1871, the paper was sold to Rev. W. W. Shaw and F. G. Barkley, Mr. Bruce taking editorial charge of the Binghamton Daily Republican. In September, 1872, Mr. Barkley became sole proprietor, and in 1877 A. S. Robinson was admitted as partner, and was connected with the paper until April. 1879. The paper is now owned and ably edited by Frank G. Barkley.

SCHOOLS

In the present elaborate system of public instruction there are very few traces left of the characteristics of the rude schools of a century ago.

The school of the early days was organized on a basis and a plan that would seem quite novel to the youth of today. The trustee would receive the application of a young man who proposed to become the teacher of the neighborhood school. If the "three R's" of the young aspirant met the approval of the trustee, a subscription paper was started to see if the necessary amount could be raised to have a quarter's school kept in the place.

The subscriptions were usually for one dollar each for the pupils, to pay the wages of the teacher, and the wood was got by the larger boys or by a "bee" of the neighborhood. The board and lodging of the teacher were furnished by such as had an extra bed to put him in.

The first attempt towards public instruction was made in the settlements on the east branch at what is now Shavertown, shortly before the Revolution. A school was established there about 1770, where instruction was given in the Dutch language.

The present generation of Shafers remembers the Dutch hymns and prayers of that generation, whose prayers and hymns were said and sung by the hearthstones that many years have been desolate. When the town of Andes was formed new records were made by the school commissioners of the new town, and although in the fire of 1878 many of the town records were lost, and others sadly disarranged, yet by the aid of the town's obliging and efficient clerk, Mr. John B. Roberts, and his predecessor, E. W. Shafer, we are able to give accurate data, not only on this, but other subjects of record.

In 1820 there were 8 school districts in the town, besides 3 parts of districts; and the whole number of pupils taught in them during any part of the current year was only 299; $145.75 covered the public moneys apportioned for the support of these schools. In 1840 there were 17 districts. In 1855 there were 19 districts, with State appropriation of $1,220. In 1878 the number had increased to 22, and the resident school population of the town was 876.

The average daily attendance for the year ending October 1st, 1878, was 360, and the State money apportioned for their support was $2,197.46.

District No.2, at Andes village, is the only one employing two teachers. This district was organized about 1800, and a school was kept two or three months in a year in a log building on the site of Hon. Richard Morse's house.

Cornelius Bassett was an early teacher. He taught winters for a good many years, and his sister Polly taught summers. William Washburn taught a school in the winter of 1792-93. The old log school-house was abandoned in 1815, and a building was then erected on the site of Miss Mungle's millinery shop. The next building was what is remembered as the "old red school-house." It was built in 1836, on land leased from James Smith and Charles Barlow. The first school in this building was taught by Peter Drummond, a term of eleven months for $160.

The carpenter work was not all finished when he began his term, and the workmen made him the victim of a practical joke. They locked the outside door and announced through the keyhole that a ticket of exit would cost him a bottle of wine for the company. The price was paid and he was admitted to the outside show.

In this building most of the elderly men of to-day received their early education; this house served its day and generation; and in 1868 it was abandoned and a contract was made with the principal of the Andes Collegiate Institute "to furnish necessary teachers, rooms and fuel for the instruction and accommodation of the pupils of this district for $650 for 42 weeks." A similar arrangement was continued until 1871, when the present school building was erected. Since its erection the district has employed two teachers. The first teachers in this building were J. H. Banker, principal, at $15 per week, and Anna George, assistant, at $10 per week. During the first term there were 135 pupils registered. Miss George is still teaching in the school, with Walter Gladstone principal.

THE ANDES COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE

Until 1847 the town and village of Andes had only the advantages of common schools, but in that year William Stoddard founded the Andes Academy and became its first principal.

The building and furniture were subsequently purchased by Henry Dowie, Esq., and in 1857 the growing popularity of the school made it necessary to enlarge the building to twice its original size. In 1862 a stock company established the present institute, and erected the commodious building, on a site adjoining the old academy. The people of Andes offered pecuniary aid to this enterprise, and Mr. Dowie gave the new site and all the paraphernalia of the old academy. He also donated the old building, which was enlarged by the addition of a third story and wing and the whole transformed into the principal's residence and students' boarding hall now standing on Delaware avenue.

The first principal was William Wight, who taught the last term in the old academy. He was succeeded by Rev. Peter Smeallie, who died in 1867. During his administration this school saw its palmiest days. For nine years the Rev. James Smeallie was at its head, but the liberality of the State had so increased the efficiency of the public schools that the patronage continually decreased.

In 1876 Rev. E. H. Stevenson took charge of the school. In the midst of such an intelligent community there is a growing demand for something beyond the scope of the district schools, and under Professor Stevenson's efficient management the institute is rapidly rising in popular favor.

PROFESSIONAL MEN

PHYSICIANS

Robert R. Thompson, M. D., was born in Delhi, in 1852. He was educated in Delaware Academy, and began the study of medicine in 1873, with Dr. Fitch of Delhi. He graduated from Long Island College Hospital, Brooklyn, in 1876, and after a year's practice in the New York City Colored Home Hospital, he located at Andes, where he has gained the respect of an intelligent community, and acquired an enviable position in his profession.

James A. Gladstone, M. P., was born in Andes, in 1846. He was educated at Andes Collegiate Institute, and began the study of medicine with Dr. Thomas Wight, of Andes, in 1869. He graduated with the class of '72 at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in the city of New York. He practiced his profession in the village of Hamden for six years; then removed to Andes, in 1878, where he now resides.

Thomas Wight, M. D., was born in Delhi, in 1839. He was educated at Delaware Academy, and graduated at the New York College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1864. He at once entered upon the practice of his profession in the village of Andes, where he is now located. He was married in 1867, to Agnes L., daughter of Henry Dowie, Esq.

William H. Crawford, M. D., was born in Delhi, in 1829. He was educated in Delaware Academy. He studied medicine with Ferris Jacobs, M. D., of Delhi, and graduated at the medical department of the University of the State of New York in 1853. He located at Griffin's Corners, and practiced there eight years; removed in Andes in 1862. He was also a contract surgeon in the Federal army in the war of the Rebellion. Being interrupted by ill health, he returned to his home in Andes, where he has since resided, and now is practicing his profession of medicine and dental surgery.

James H. Kelly, M. D., was born in Ulster county, N. Y., in 1846, and educated in Kingston Academy. He studied medicine with A. C. Hull, Olive, Ulster county, N. Y., graduated at Albany Medical College in 1868, and located at Shavertown, where he is now practicing.

John H. Weckel. M. D., was born in Delaware county in 1857, and educated at Park Ridge Institute, N. J. He graduated at the medical department of the University of the City of New York in 1879, and located at Union Grove, where he is now practicing. He is the first resident physician at this place.

LAWYERS

The legal profession is represented by Palmer and Shaw, Barna Johnson and John A. Scott.

Barna Johnson was born in Colchester, Delaware county, N. Y., in 1849. He began the study of law with his brother, W. H. Johnson, in 1869. He was admitted to the bar at the age of twenty-three, and has since successfully practiced his profession in the village of Andes. He is a rising young lawyer, and has a good standing in the Bar Association of Delaware county.

John A. Scott, born in Bovina in 1840, was educated at Andes Collegiate Institute, and studied law with W. H. Johnson; and after two terms at the Albany Law School was admitted to the bar in 1867, and has since practiced in the village of Andes.

EARLY POSTAL ARRANGEMENTS

The first postmaster at Andes was John Waterbury, who was appointed May 8th, 1820. The office was kept in what is now the oldest building in the town-at present occupied by Dr. Crawford. The first settlers went to Middletown for their mail, but after the building of the Ithaca turnpike the postman on horseback brought a semi-monthly mail.

Captain Mapes, who ran a steamboat on the Hudson, put a private coach on the turnpike route, and carried the mail by private contract for three months, when he got the government contract to bring the regular mail from Kingston to Delhi-leaving Kingston at two o'clock in the morning and reaching Delhi at six in the afternoon.

The arrival of the first passenger coach from Kingston was a red letter day at Andes. Crowds assembled and cannon were fired in honor of the great event.

The post-office at Andes was robbed in December, 1876. About $225 was taken. The culprit was tried at Utica and sentenced to five years at Albany Penitentiary.

SOME BUSINESS ENTERPRISES

The oldest business man doing business in Andes village is Daniel B. Shafer, who began here in 1833. The building he occupies is the oldest business place, having been erected in 1835. Charles Carman's art gallery and Dr. Crawford's office are in this building.

Nicolls & Dickson, hardware merchants, succeeded James Gladstone in 1876. The building was put up in 1857 by C. B. Shafer, and was subsequently occupied as a hardware store by George C. Gibbs, and again by Robert O. Gladstone.

Eli Felton, jr., began business in 1878 in the building erected by Benjamin Connor about 1842. This building was occupied by Duncan Ballantine from 1847 to 1856. Since then Benjamin Connor kept a dry goods store here until he was succeeded by Blakie Brothers.

David Ballantine, general merchandise, succeeded W. B. Dowie in 1874, in the building erected by W. B. and Henry Dowie in 1858. On this site was the old red store, built and occupied by Thomas L. Montgomery in a very early day in the business history of the village.

A. S. Dowie & Son occupy a building erected by James Dickson, for a cabinet-shop, about 1859. The Andes Recorder office was in this building for a time. The frame stood near Nicolls & Dickson's, and was first used as a store as early as 1828, by James Smith and John O. More.

In 1819 Edward Sands & Thomas Bryant, sen., kept a store on the lot south of Dr. Thomas Wight's drug store. North of the drug store was a store building erected in 1847 by Richard Morse, who kept a store in it up to 1865. This building was occupied by Hood & Dickson at the time it was destroyed in the great fire of 1878. They immediately built their present store, and in August, 1879, Mr. Hood succeeded to the whole of the business.

W. D. Dunn, general merchant, occupies the store built by L. D. Mason in 1848. It was occupied by Richard Morse, the present owner, from 1870 to 1876, when Mr. Dunn began business,

James Ballantine, general merchant, succeeded his brother David in 1874. The store was built by their father in 1856.

The first blacksmith in Andes was John Maybe, who had a shop some years prior to 1818 on the now vacant lot on Main street, north of Joshua K. Hood's store. One McUmber and Solomon Shaver were among the early smiths. The shop now occupied by Thomas M. Spiers is the oldest shop in the village. It was erected by Benjamin Conner in 1845, on the site of a previous one, burned that year. John Miller came to Andes in 1840. His shop on Delaware avenue was destroyed in the great fire of 1878, when he removed to his present shop on High street.

John V. Miller has a wagon and ironing shop on upper Main street.

The first foundry in Andes was built in 1850 by T. R. Merrill. Thomas S. Miller succeeded him in the business in 1860.

Andrew Liddle, liveryman, established his business at the close of the war. He keeps a suitable supply for a country village. Augustus Scutt, Alexander Liddle and George E. Scutt were among his predecessors in the business.

The Heimer Brothers, carriage, sign and ornamental painters, succeeded their father, Francis Heimer, who established the business in 1848.

The harness business is represented by E. W. Shafer and by John B. Roberts, successor to Roberts & Bohlman.

The cabinet business is represented by William Oliver and H. Christensen. William Oliver commenced business in 1851, and carried on a cabinet and undertaking business. H. Christensen was with him for several years, but in 1859 he established his present separate business.

The drug business is represented by Dr. Wight and W. M. Peck. Dr. Wight's store was burned in the fire of 1878, and his present building immediately erected. During 1876 the second drug business was established, by Z. P. Deforest & Co., in a rough structure known as the "Hemlock Pharmacy."

In 1878 the building now standing on the corner of Main street and Delaware avenue was erected by them. In May of the same year the property passed into the hands of Mr. Peck. Since then R. M. McCall has had charge of the business.

The beginning of the millinery business was made by Sally Adee, now widow Conner, in 1824, in the Upper Hotel.

A shop was opened in 1839 by Mrs. James Seath, in the Miss Dowie house, on Main street.

At present there are four milliner shops in the village. The oldest business is Miss Mungle's, who began business in 1859.

Maggie Blakie has carried on a business since 1860. Mrs. J. Ferguson began dressmaking in 1874; two years later she added millinery to the business; her shop is at her residence on Main street. Violet Anderson opened a new shop in the Upper Hotel in 1879.

THE CHURCHES OF ANDES

ANDES M. E. CHURCH

The earliest record that can be found of the M. E. church at Andes is a "church lease," dated 1820. The lease is simply a statement, carefully drawn by Francis Bassett, deeding a certain parcel of land-that on which the church now stands-to the trustees of the church then in office, Israel Chapman, Jesse Burtch. William Cushing. Levi Webb and John Bassett comprising the official board. Soon after securing the building lot, the society commenced gathering material for the erection of a church, which in the early history of Methodism was no small undertaking. But even in those early days there were men with strong hands and willing hearts. Abram Hyzer, Peter Penet and Rev. Israel Chapman cut the first stick of timber, and knelt by the prostrate tree and prayed for the success of the under-taking. Thus started, and consecrated in prayer to Almighty God, the success of the enterprise was insured.

For several years the church remained unfinished, the society meanwhile worshiping in the district school-house, and for a time in the old Presbyterian church on the hill. About 1830 or 1832 the building was so far enclosed as to permit occupancy, the minister preaching to the people from a workbench as a pulpit. A potash kettle was used for a fire-place several years before and after the church was completed. The first stove used was a "box-stove," nearly square, and was a great wonder. Quite a number of the old inhabitants can remember when hemlock slabs were used for seats, some of them having backs similar to our modern settee.

The church was finished in 1838. The last work done was the building of a pulpit. It is remembered as being very high, the top of it reaching quite to the breast-work of the gallery. It is said that a man could easily jump from the top of the pulpit to the gallery, which had been done.

From the above date 1838 the church enterprise may be said to have fully developed-the membership numbering 36 full members. A class is known to have been in existence as early as 1812. Meetings were held in Israel Chapman's house, an old red building on the site of James F. Scott's residence, with very irregular preaching appointments, several weeks intervening from the time the people heard one sermon before they could hear another.

From a class book dated 1825 we learn that Daniel Ostrander was the presiding elder; Cyrus Silliman and Bezaleel Howe circuit preachers: Abram Hyzer and John Bassett class leaders. At this time Andes formed part of the Delaware circuit. In 1830 the circuit was divided, and was known afterward as the Middletown circuit, which comprised the following classes or preaching appointments: Andes, Millbrook, Akerleytown, Factory, Dry Brook, Plattekill, Middletown, Clovesville, Portertown, Weaver's Hollow, Pine Hill and Shavertown.

From the records we have a complete list of all the ministers that have served the Andes charge to the present date, each serving two years or less: 1825, Cyrus Silliman, Bezaleel Howe; 1827, F. W. Smith, P. Ferris; 1829, Alexander Calder, P. R. Brown; 1830, A. Calder, J. P. Foster; 1831, N. Rice, A. Calder; 1832, Bezaleel Howe, Philo Ferris; 1834, B. Howe, J. Carver; 1836, David B. Turner, Charles W. Holmes; 1838, D. Bullock, S. M. Knapp; 1840, John Davies; 1841, John Carver; 1842, John Carver, Lucius H. King;1843, D. Bullock; 1844, F. Gould, Joel Croft; 1846, Hiram Lamont, Nathan H. Bangs: 1847. William H. Smith; 1849, Edward Stoul, Robert Kerr.

In 1850 or 1851 a division was made on the Middletown circuit, placing Andes with Kortright circuit, James Elliott in charge. In 1853 a further division was made on the Kortright circuit, placing Andes and Bovina under one charge, with R. S. Scott circuit preacher; 1855, J. Whittaker; 1857, William Hall; 1859, R. Decker; 1861, L. B. Andrus; 1862, J. H. Champion; 1863, Charles Palmer; 1865, W. D. Fero; 1866, O. P. Dales; 1868, W. S. Winans; 1869, R. Decker; 1871, W. W. Shaw; 1873. A. Gaylord; 1876, T. Elliott; 1879, J. H. Phillips. In 1871 the Andes and Bovina circuit was divided, each forming a separate charge and maintaining its own pastor. Thus, from a large circuit comprising originally over a dozen appointments, one after another of the societies have consolidated and stand alone.

In 1863 the old church building was sold, removed, and now stands on the premises of A. S. Dowie, opposite the new church. The present building was erected in the same year, under the labors of Charles Palmer, pastor; J. C. Cornish, builder. The parsonage was built in 1861. In 1863 the society voted no more burials on the church lot.

The present valuation of the church property is $8,000, and it is insured for $3,000. The seating capacity of the church is 400. The membership is 91; probationers, 9.

The Sabbath-school numbers 11 officers and teachers, 115 scholars. A. S. Dowie is superintendent.

The present board of trustees (1879) consists of L. B. McCabe, Duncan Ballantine, A. S. Dowie, David Hyzer and John C. Bohlman.

THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHUCH OF ANDES

Between the years 1790 and 1825 a number of families from the south of Scotland, most of them members of the secession church of Scotland, emigrated to this county and settled in the towns of Stamford, Bovina, Middletown and Andes. Those of them who located in the latter towns found themselves in a situation almost destitute of the gospel. A few missionaries, of different denominations, sent out by the New York Missionary Society, came and preached occasionally, but there was nothing like a regular supply of preaching. Some of the Scotch families attended worship at the Associate Reformed church in Stamford, then under the pastoral care of Rev. Robert Forest. But the distance was so great, and the roads such, that a general or regular attendance was altogether impracticable. Hence on the Sabbath the people met in the neighboring schoolhouses and devoted the day to prayer, the reading of the Scriptures, etc. Not unfrequently one of Boston's sermons was read. This state of things was, of course, far from satisfactory to those who in their native land had been accustomed to be fed every Sabbath with the fat things of the gospel by such men as Dr. Lawson, of Selkirk, and others of almost equal note. Accordingly, January 18th, 1833, Mr. Robert Fletcher, who may properly be called the father of this congregation, prepared and circulated a petition addressed to the Associate Reformed Presbytery of Saratoga, asking presbytery to appoint them supplies. The petition was signed by the following persons, viz.: Robert Fletcher, James Fletcher, Alexander Sim, John Anderson, R. Nicoll, Mrs. Bryant, Sylvanus Austin, Charles Austin, John VanSicklen, John Elder, Frank Conner, Robert Robson, Alexander Ruickbie, Christian Yaples, J. Chisholm, C. Hewit, Philip Yaples, A. H. Yaples and Ezra Sprague. It was presented to presbytery in the month of February. Presbytery granted their request and appointed Rev. Mr. Forest, and Rev. Mr. McAuley, then pastor of the A. R. congregation of Kortright, to supply them with preaching two or three Sabbaths. The first sermon was preached by Mr. Forest, March 31st, 1833, in what is now known as school-house No. 4, on the Kingston turnpike, near the residence of Mr. George Fletcher-then the residence of his father, Mr. Robert Fletcher. Mr. McAuley did not fulfill his appointment. On September 14th a subscription of $95 was raised to pay for ministerial labor. Mr. Forest again visited them December 22nd, preaching in schoolhouse No.4, from Ps. lxxii, 17: "His name shall endure forever." The house was filled, the audience being unusually large in the evening. On the next day an election was held to choose elders and trustees. Messrs. James Miller, Christian Yaples, Thomas Laidlow, James Fletcher and Alexander Sim were chosen trustees.

From this time until June, 1834, they had preaching occasionally, sometimes by Mr. Forest and sometimes by Mr. Thomas McLaury, a young man recently licensed by presbytery. Services were held in school-house No. 4, also at the residence of Christian Yaples, now known as the Palmatier place, and at what was called the Plattekill school-house, near what is now the village of New Kingston.

On the 12th of June, 1834, Rev. James Laing appeared among them for the first time, and on June 15th preached his first sermons to them, in the Plattekill school-house. His texts were Matt. x, 28; Heb. vii, 25; Rom. viii, 1. The elders who had been elected were ordained by Mr. Laing August 17th, 1834, thus organizing what is now the United Presbyterian Congregation of Andes. Soon after this date the force of elders was augmented by the addition of Mr. Peter Calhoun to their number.

The same day on which the elders were ordained Mr. Laing baptized the children of Walter Biggar and William Laidlow, the first children baptized in the congregation. On October 14th Messrs. James Fletcher and William Laidlow set out with their teams to Springfield, Otsego county, and removed Mr. Laing and his family to the village of Andes, where he took up his residence in a house belonging to Isaac B. Sands, now owned and occupied by Mrs. Esther Bassett. The next summer he removed to a parsonage provided by the congregation. The building occupied the site upon which the house of James Ballantine now stands. To the parsonage seven acres of land were attached, and a substantial addition built to the house. Mr. Laing resided here until he purchased and removed to the farm now occupied by his son, William C. Laing, in 1844. The people were now somewhat encouraged by the prospect of a more liberal supply of preaching, and raised $132 to defray the expenses of the coming year.

They were now greatly in need of a house of worship. But how were they to build? Where was the money to come from? Stamford and Kortright had both been building for themselves, and little if any aid could be expected from them. The people, too, were poor-but one man among them who was not in debt. They lived on rented land, were few in number and widely scattered. Besides this they had the same difficulties to contend with that exist in our day, and which doubtless will continue to exist in the world as long as the church is in it. While some were self-denying, and willing to sacrifice personal preferences and personal conveniences for the common good, aiming only at the success of the cause dear to their hearts and dear to the Master, others, actuated by a spirit of self-ism, prompting them to "seek their own, not the 'things that are Jesus Christ's," would do little or nothing unless they could have their own way, or have the house of worship in their own favorite locality. The much-needed house, however, was obtained. A few zealous, good men, among whom were the Waterburys, the Benedicts and others of the early settlers, had by great exertion and self-denial succeeded in erecting a small frame building, neither lathed nor plastered, and furnished with a few slab benches, in the village of Andes. It stood on the rise of ground in the rear of what is now known as Bassett's Hall. It was known as the Presbyterian church (N. S.). The use of this house, free of charge, was kindly offered to the Associate Reformed congregation at such times as it was not needed by those to whom it belonged. This generous, Christian offer was thankfully accepted, and thereafter, until the erection of the present house of worship, services were held in it.

On June 24th, 1835. the people of Cabin Hill presented a petition to the Associate Reformed Presbytery of Saratoga, asking the presbytery to grant them one-half of Mr. Laing's time. The congregation of Andes acquiescing in the proposed arrangement, the petition was granted, and from that time until his death Mr. Laing preached one-half of the time in the church at Cabin Hill, and the other half in the village of Andes. On December 20th, 1835, the Lord's Supper was dispensed for the first time in the A. R. congregation of Andes. Mr. Laing was assisted on the occasion by Mr. Forest, of Stamford. Thirty-one or thirty-two persons communed, that being about the number of members in both congregations at that time. In June, 1838, the N. S. Presbyterians, in whose house the congregation had worshiped during the past three years, proposed to give the Associate Reformed congregation the use of their church building one-half time forever if they would assist in repairing it. This proposition was considered at a meeting held June 6th, 1838, and respectfully declined, chiefly because the congregation was not satisfied as to the title by which the property was held. At the same meeting they unanimously resolved to build a house for themselves, but nothing further was done in the matter for nearly three years.

On July 18th, 1838, it was. unanimously resolved to extend a call to Mr. Laing to become settled pastor of the congregation, in connection with Cabin Hill. Accordingly a call was drawn up at Cabin Hill, August 15th, by Rev. Mr. Forest. and signed by the members of both congregations, 6o in all. It was also signed by 24 persons who were hearers of Mr. Laing, butt not members of either congregation. No stated amount of salary was mentioned in the call. The amount subscribed by the congregation of Andes was $163.50, and it is presumed Cabin Hill paid as much. From the time Mr. Laing came among them, in 1834, he seems never to have required any stated amount for his services. Had he done so, the enterprise would doubtless have failed, especially if he had required it in money, which in those times and in this locality could hardly be called an article of exchange. He took such sums as they were able to pay, either in money or in any kind of produce which he could use in his family. The first year he was with them, 1834-5, he received from the congregation $132; the second year $111, and the third year $128.50. For his first five days' preaching he received $30. We simply state the facts-the reader can moralize for himself.

On December 12th, 1838, Re,. James I.aing was installed pastor of the united congregations of Andes and Cabin Hill. The day was the stormiest one of the season, so far, and none of the members of the presbytery were present except the venerable Father Forest, and upon him devolved all the services of the occasion. He had laid the foundation of the congregation alone, no other member of the presbytery supplying the infant church during its early struggle for existence, and it was eminently fitting that he alone should install its first pastor and commend both it and him to the care of the Chief Shepherd.

In the summer of 1848 the congregation erected their present house of worship, at a cost of about $1,800. The carpenter work was done by Messrs. James and John Dickson. The committee appointed to select the site were, Messrs. John Whitson. sen.. John McNair. Peter Calhoun, Thomas Dickson and John Gladstone. The house was opened for public worship on November 18th. 1848, with an appropriate sermon by Rev. John D. Gibson, the successor of the venerable Father Forest, deceased, in the pastorate of the congregation of Stamford, from Gen. xxviii, 17. A number of ministers of different denominations were present on the occasion. Rev. Clark Irving, of Kortright, preached in the afternoon. But little more can be added in reference to the pastorate of Father Laing. He continued pastor of his united charges until exactly ten years from this date, doing his work amid the hopes and fears, encouragements and discouragements incident to all faithful laborers in the Master's vineyard; performing his arduous and self-denying labors with zeal and ability, and watching over his flock with parental care. Under his ministry the congregations steadily increased in numbers, until at his death the congregation of Andes numbered 127 members, with a corresponding growth in the congregation of Cabin Hill.

Rev. James Laing was born in Perthshire, Scotland, in January, 1785. In early life be learned the trade of a weaver, and at the age of sixteen years received the prize of a silver watch as the best workman in the factory. This was the only watch he ever owned. Shortly afterward, as the effect of his own free choice, he entered upon a course of preparation for the gospel ministry. He received a liberal education at the University of Glasgow, attending the lectures on languages, philosophy and theology for nine sessions. He was a diligent and faithful student. He was licensed to preach the gospel by the Relief Presbytery of Glasgow, April 12th, 1825. He came to this country in April, 1828, bearing with him from men of eminence in the church the highest testimonials to his native talent, literary attainments, exemplary piety and ability as a preacher. On November 21st, 1832, he was called to the pastorate of the Reformed Dutch church in Argyle, N. Y. He came to Andes June 12th, 1834; was installed pastor of the Associate Reformed congregations of Andes and Cabin Hill December 12th, 1838. On Sunday, November 14th, 1858, he preached at Cabin Hill, apparently in his usual health. In a few hours afterward he was seized with congestion of the lungs, and on Thursday morning. November 18th, 1858, he entered into his rest. He was buried in the cemetery at Andes. The congregation erected a suitable monument over his grave. Thus passed away this good man, in the seventy-fourth year of his age, and the twenty-first year of his pastorate at Andes.

As a minister, Mr. Laing was earnestly devoted to his work. Never would lie forsake it to engage in any secular calling. He was an excellent scholar in the classics and sciences, and many lucrative situations were tendered him in this country, but he declined them, to give himself wholly to the ministry. His sermons were carefully prepared, and his style energetic and perspicuous. He was self-denying in his labors, not counting even his own life dear to himself, that be might finish his course with joy, and the ministry which he had received of the Lord Jesus. He was noted for his peaceable disposition and the amiability of his temper. He was careful in regard to giving offence to any, being, like the apostle, disposed to suffer all things lest he should hinder the gospel of Christ.

After the death of Mr. Laing the congregations of Andes and Cabin Hill became separate pastoral charges. By the union of the Associate and Associate Reformed denominations in May, 1858, forming the United Presbyterian church, the congregation took the name of the United Presbyterian Church of Andes. The congregation was supplied until June 16th, 1859, when Mr. D. C. Niven, a licentiate, was ordained and installed as its pastor. The sermon on the occasion was preached by Rev. W. C. Somers, of Hobart. Rev. John Erskine, of North Kortright, officiated in the ordination. Rev. William J. Cleland, of West Delhi, delivered the charge to the pastor. Rev. James George, D. D., of Kingston, Canada West, delivered the charge to the people. The congregation now made a substantial addition to the church, at a cost of about $1,200. Colonel James Oliver was the contractor for the work. Mr. Niven was an able preacher and faithful pastor. During his short pastorate of about two years, 67 names were added to the roll of members. There were seventy-five baptisms-six adults and sixty-nine infants. On August 6th, 1861, Mr., Niven tendered his resignation of his pastoral charge, a step rendered necessary by the ill health of Mrs. Niven, her physician advising the change. His resignation was accepted at a subsequent meeting of the presbytery and the congregation again became vacant.

Duncan C. Niven was born in Bloomingburgh, Sullivan county, N.Y., February 18th, 1829. He was of Highland Scotch ancestry on his father's side and Holland Dutch on his mother's. He was prepared for college at the Newburg academy and the school attached to the Associate Reformed seminary in Newburg. He studied law with Fullerton & Fowler, of Newburg, was admitted to practice law in 1850 by the Supreme Court of New York; was also admitted to practice law in the States of Wisconsin and Texas. He was married April 26th, 1853, to Miss Augusta T. Ecker, of Monticello, Sullivan county, N. Y. Whilst practicing law in New York, in 1857, he commenced studying theology under the care of the Associate Presbytery of New York. He was licensed to preach the gospel at the spring meeting of the presbytery in 1859, and on June 16th, 1859, was ordained and installed pastor of the Associate Reformed congregation of Andes, by the Associate Reformed Presbytery of Saratoga. He resigned his charge August 6th, 1861, and is now August, 1879 pastor of the Presbyterian church at Marlborough, Ulster county, N. Y.

After the resignation of Mr. Niven the pulpit was supplied for a time. On March 16th, 1864, the congregation gave a unanimous call to Rev. James Bruce, and on June 21st he was duly installed pastor of the congregation. Rev. R. G. Wallace preached the sermon from Ps. xii, I, and delivered the charge to the people. Rev. J. M. Smeallie delivered the address to the pastor. There were then 155 names on the roll of membership, 32 of whom have since been removed by death, and 43 by dismissals and otherwise. The number of members received during the present pastorate is 235, of whom 20 have been removed by death and 75 by dismissal and otherwise-leaving the present membership (August, 1879) 220. The largest number received at one time was 46, received in June, 1866. During the present pastorate there have been 205 baptisms, viz., 181 infants, and 24 adults; one of the latter, Rev. J. L. Scott, is now pastor of the Presbyterian church at Matteawan, N.Y. The present Sabbath-school was organized July 24th, 1864, with 107 scholars and 9 teachers. The same year a substantial addition was made to the library, making the total number of volumes 431. The first Sabbath-school was started by Mr. Laing, May 30th, 1852. The present bell was put up March 4th, 1875; weight 1,113 pounds, cost $450. The following is a list of the elders of the congregation since its organization:

Robert Fletcher, installed August 17th, 1834; died January 18th, 1860; Walter Biggar, installed August 17th, 1834, dismissed by certificate in 1844; Peter Calhoun, date of installation unknown, died March 19th, 1875; John Whitson, installed January 4th, 1846, died February 27th, 1875; John Elliot, installed January 4th, 1846, died January 31st, 1878; Thomas Dickson, installed December 30th, 1860; John L. Wight, installed December 30th, 1860, dismissed by certificate June 14th 1875; Edward Turnbull, installed October 24th, 1868; Malcom Calhoun, installed October 24th, 1868; John Telford, M. D., installed October 24th, 1868, died December 25th, 1871; James Whitson installed March 30th, 1876.

The present elders are Thomas Dickson, Edward Turnbull, Malcom Calhoun and James Whitson. The trustees are William C. Laing, John Holmes, Andrew G. Thomson, James W. Dickson, William S. Doig, William Oliver and Elliot Graham.

Rev. James. Bruce, son of Dr. A. C. Bruce, was born in Pennsylvania in 1831. He prepared for college at Princeton Academy, Ind.; graduated at Hanover College, Ind., in 1851, and at the Theological Seminary at Canonsburg, Pa., in 1855. During the same year he was married to Mary, daughter of Colonel Matthew Linn, of Washington county, Pa. In 1858 he was ordained and installed pastor of the Associate congregations of Mercersburg and Cove, Pa. After a pastorate of five years he resigned and spent one year in the home mission service. In 1864 he was installed pastor of the U. P. Church, Andes, to which he had received a unanimous call, where he is now laboring.

BIOGRAPHICAL

DUNCAN BALLANTINE was born in Bovina in 1821. He is a son of David Ballantyne (as anciently written) and a grandson of that Ballantyne, of Roxburyshire, Scotland, who was in intimate business relations with Sir Walter Scott (see American Cyclopedia, article Ballantyne). Mr. Ballantine was married in 1849 to Nancy, daughter of E. B. Hunting, of Andes. He began mercantile business in Bovina in 1840. Seven years later he removed to Andes and carried on business as a merchant and broker until 1872, when his oldest son succeeded to the mercantile part of the business. Mr. Ballantine aided in the organization of the First National Bank of Delhi in 1863, and the following year he organized the National Bank of Andes and was elected president, which position he now occupies.

JAMES BALLANTINE son of Duncan Ballantine was born in Andes in 1855. In 1874 he began mercantile business in Andes, where he is now dealing in general merchandise. He handles a large part of the dairy product of his vicinity. His wife was Miss Kate Shaw, to whom he was marred in 1876.

F. G. BARKLEY was born in Catskill, N.Y. in 1849. He came to Andes in 1870 as editor and proprietor of the Andes Recorder. He was married in 1871 to Agnes Searles, of Greene county.

A. A. BARNHART, son of Christyan and grandson of Phillip Barnhart, who came to Andes before the Revolution, fled for safety and came back after the war, was born in Andes in 1830. Mr. Barnhart was engaged in farming and lumbering until 1867, when he sold his farm and bought his blacksmith shop and residence at Shavertown. He was married in 1852 to Ann J. Flinn.

PETER N. BASSETT, son of Adams and grandson of Ebenezer Bassett, was born in Bovina in 1812. He was married in 1837 to Arluna, daughter of David Samuels. Their family consisted of four children; one daughter, Esther, died in the treasury department at Washington. The others are living.

JOHN BECKWITH, son of Joseph Beckwith, was born in Ulster county, N.Y., in 1829. He came to Andes, to the farm which he now owns, in 1839. The farm was settled by Oliver Miner. Mr. Beckwith was married in 1857 to Elizabeth Nicoll, of Bovina.

JOSEPH BLAKIE, son of Robert Blakie, of Scotland, was born near Hawick in 1797, and came to Delaware county in 1819. In 1820 he married Isabelle, daughter of Robert Campbell, who came from Scotland to Andes in 1818. Their family consisted of nine children; five are living. Of these, Robert occupies the homestead at Fall Clove; John and Joseph resides at Andes; Maggie carries on a millinery business at Andes; Mary was a successful teacher for the twenty years preceding 1874, when she gave up teaching to assume the care of her aged mother. The father of this respected and prosperous generation was drowned in Lake Erie in 1853.

MRS. M.A. BRAMLEY, widow of Sylvanus Bramley, who died in 1864, resides in the town of Andes. She owns a dairy farm, the farm from which the Andes Cemetery was taken.

ASA BRYANT, of English descent, was born in Andes in 1826. He was married in 1859 to Betsey Ann, daughter of Daniel Reynolds. Mr. Bryant is one of the leading farmers of Bryant Hollow, having a fine dairy farm of two hundred and sixty-four acres.

SEYMOUR BRYANT was born in the town of Andes in 1852. His father was Thomas Bryant, brother of Asa Bryant. Mr. Bryant is a farmer, owning a fine farm of three hundred and seventy-five acres.

ALEXANDER J. BRYDEN was born in Andes in 1840. He was married in 1875 to Louisa Van Amburgh, of Middletown. He is a dairy farmer of Cabin Hill, his farm containing one hundred and forty-four acres.

DAVID BURROUGHS was born in Stamford, Delawere county, in 1814. He engaged in farming untgil 1862, when he removed to Andes and carried on a butcher's business until 1878, when he retired. His first wife, Isabelle Laughren, died in 1869. His present wife was Caroline Bramley, of Andes. His son Andrew R. was a pastor in the M.E. church for the sixteen years preceding his death in 1877.

THOMAS BURROW, who for many years was a successful lumberman and farmer, was born in the town of Middletown; he moved to this town in 1848, and died in November, 1878, aged sixty-six years. His widow, who survives him, was the daughter of Devoe Ganung. She has two children now living with her.

ABRAM BUSSY, son of Lewis and grandson of Jonh Le Droit Bussy, who came to this country from France before the Revolutionary war, was born in 1822. Mr. Bussy served seven years in the state militia. He was married in 1852 to Mary, daughter of William Fritts, of Davenport. His grandfather was a major in the American army, and once chancellor of New York.

JOHN S. CAIRNS was born in Scotland in 1803. He came to Delaware county in 1831. In 1833 he was married to Elizabeth Chambers. Their family of eight children are, with one exception, all living.

CHARLES CARMAN, son of Joshua Carman, was born in Bovina in 1832. He early learned photographing, but in 1858 he removed to Downsville and opened a general store. He was married in 1860 to Helen M. Johnson, of Downsville. He removed to Andes in 1868 and engaged in mercantile business. In 1875 he opened his art gallery. He was enrolling officer during the war, and census marshal in 1870. He has been justice of the peace five years and justice of sessions one year.

PARTRICK CARROLL, of Ireland, settled on Cross Mountain, of the farm now occupied by himself and son, some thirty-five years since. His son, Edward, has four children, three of whom reside with their parents on the old homestead.

PRATT CHABERLIN was born in Dutchess county, in 1820, and came to Delaware county in 1849. He was in the lumber business for twenty-five years, and in 1875 he took charge of the Central Hotel in Andes, where his is now located.

GEORGE E. CHASE, general speculator, was born in Hamden, Delaware county, in 1822. He ran the mail and passenger line from Delhi to Rondout for eight years; drove the first coach that ever ran over the route. Mr. Chase has also kept hotel in this county for several years.

ALVERT COLE, barber, was born in Hamden, Delaware county, in 1851. He located in Andes in the spring of 1877. Was married in 1878 to Julia M. Street. He keeps a neat shop and news office on Main street, Andes.

WILLIAM D. COVERT, son of Isaac and grandson of Sylvanus Covert, of Dutchess county, was born in Andes in 1845. He was married in 1870 to Susie M. Covell, who died in 1873. His present wife is Eliza, daughter of Andrew Reid, who came to this county from Scotland in 1853, and granddaughter of John Reid, of Glasgow.

ANDREW T. COWAN was born in Andes, in 1854. In 1869 he began learning the printer's trade, at which he worked seven years. In May, 1879, he succeeded William Reynolds in the butcher business in Andes, associated with D.L.Thomson under the firm name of A. T. Cowan & Co. The young firm is doing a fair share of the business and working its way toward success.

PETER CRISPELL, son of Benjamin, a soldier in the war of 1812, and grandson of Peter Crispell, a pioneer of Ulster county, was born in Shandaken, in 1830. He left home when fifteen years old, and has since been variously engaged. He drove the stage from Delhi to Kingston for several years. He then engaged in farming; was for twelve years proprietor of a hotel in Shandaken. He removed to Andes in 1870; is proprietor of the Union Hotel. His first wife, Hannah Griffin, died in 1861. His second wife was Mary Deyo, who died in 1868. He was married to Mary , daughter of John Gibbs, in 1872.

MRS. ELIZABETH M. DAVIS, widow of W. T. Davis, who was borin in Roxbury, in 1817, and died in Andes in 1874, was born in Andes in 1824. The family consists of six boys and three girls. They have a farm of one hundred and sixty acres at Dingle Hill, which the boys carry on. The girls are teachers. The shool-house in this district was erected in 1848, on a part of their farm.

HEZEKIAH N. DAVIS was born at the Davis homestead, Dingle Hill, in 1827. His father, John Davis, was a soldier in the war of 1812; his grandfather a Revolutionary soldier, and himself a soldier in the Federal army form 1862 until 1865. Frederick Davis, a brother of John, was killed ina battle of the Revolution. Mr. Davis has resided at the homestead since 1845.

JOHN N. DAVIS was born in Andes in 1814. He was married in 1844 to Emeline Phurdom. Mr. Davis formerly owned a saw-mill, but is now a dairy farmer. Their family has consisted of four children, two of whom are living.

M. S. DAVIS, son of John, a pioneer of Delhi in 1794, and grandson of Hezekiah Davis, a Revolutionary soldier, was born in Andes in 1823. His sister Prothena now lives with him. He was married to Mary Vermilya in 1846. He has been assessor of his town seven years. His farm was settled by John Earle, son of Jonathan Earle.

JOHN DICKMAN was born in Delaware county in 1850. He lived at Kingston until 1868; removed to his present farm at Dingle Hill in 1870. He worked as carpenter and joiner several years. He was married to Maria E., daughter of M.S.Davis, Esq., of Andes, in 1876.

JOHN DICKSON, the sixth of the nine children of James and Jane Dickson, who came to this county from Edinburgh in 1818, was born in Andes in 1827. He spent several years as contractor and builder in the firm of Dickson Brothers, who, after the settlement of the Anti-Rent troubles, carried on an extensive business in the village of Andes and the surrounding county. He is now one of the first farmers in Gladstone Hollow, having a fine farm of two hundred acres.

FREDERICK DIETRICH, cabinet maker, was born in Germany. He came to New York city in 1873, and to Andes in1875. He was married in 1876 to Kate, daughter of Emanuel Dreyfous, of Andes.

JAMES R. DIMMICK was born in Middletwon in 1847. He was a farmer and drover until 1879, when he establishted a grocery at Shavertown, where he is now engaged. He was married to Frances Twiss, of Colchester, in 1876.

W. D. DUNN was born at Bovina in 1825. His early days were spent on a farm, usually teaching school during the winter season. In 1850 he began his mercantile career in Bovina, He was in the boot and shoe business in New York city several years, and in 1871 he opened a general store in Andes, where hi is now engaged.

THOMAS EDWARDS, farmer, was born in Ireland in 1843, and came to Delaware county in 1861. He was married in 1870 to Mary Glendening, of Andes, who was born in Scotland in 1833. She was the widow of John Glendening, a highly respected citizen, who was born in 1830 and died in 1864, leaving four sons. The farm was settled by - Killips, a German squatter, who made the first clearing in this vicinity. The first lease was taken by Glibert Bradley.

ELI FELTON. JR., was born in England in 1816. He came to New York city when a child. He came to Andes in 1858, and worked as a practical tinner until 1878, when he opened a hardware store. He was married in 1840 to Elizabeth N. Hughson. Mr. Felton servied three years in the city fire department.

JOHN V. FINKLE was born in Sullivan county, in 1840. He came to Andes in 1846, and was married to Synthia Dickson, of Middletown, in 1861. He has made lumbering his business, and for the last two years has carried on the Miner saw-mill on the Tremper kill. Mr. Finkle was a soldier in Company I, 3d N. Y. regiment, and was in the battles of Blackwater, Johnson's Farm, before Petersburg, Point of Rocks, Appomattox, where their colonel, John Mix, was killed; also in the battle before Richmond.

GEORGE FLETCHER was born in Selkirkshire, Scotland, in 1815. He came to this country with his father's family in 1823, sailing from Greenwhich June 9th, reaching New York July 16th. Mr. Flectcher was married to Cornelia Stanley, of Wayne county, in 1838. Two of their sons were in the Federal army, and their record is with that of Company E. 114th regiment. Mr. Fletcher's father. Robert Fletcher, was one of the best read men of his time. His records of current events are very clear and valuable. He died at the homestead, one of the first settled farms in Andes, in 1860, at the age of 95.

JAMES FLETCHER was born in Scotland, in 1796. He came to this country and settled in the town of Andes in 1823. He was married to Christina Miller, in 1834. Their family consisted of five children. Nancy, the oldest daughter, is the only one living; she is at the homestead, caring for her father in his age and feebleness. Mrs. Fletcher died in August 1868.

CHAUCEY N. FULLER was born in Bovina, in 1853. He began the business of tinner in 1870, and worked at the trade with D. L. Thomson for three or four years. He is now engaged by H. S. Murray in the manufacture of the "Delaware county milk pan." He was married to Mary Blish, of Middletown, in 1878.

PETER GEORGE son of James and Elizabeth King George, was born in Scotland in 1806, and came to Cabin Hill in 1828. He was married In 1835 to Jane Callum, of Scotland. who survives him. Their family consisted of nine children. John died in the army; Margaret died in 186l while a student at Delaware Institute; Elizabeth K. is Mrs. Rev. A. G. King, of West Delhi; Jennie is Mrs. Thomas Hutson, of Delhi; James, in Iowa Christina is Mrs. Ely Lombard, of Delhi; Anna, a teacher In Andes village; Peter A. is in business in Chicago. The youngest of this prosperous and respected generation Is David D. K., who, since his fathers death in l870, has had charge of the homestead farm.

ROBERT O. GLADSTONE, descendent of Robert Gladstone who came to this county from Scotland in 1817, was born in Bovina in 1819. He was married in 1843 to Jane N., daughter of B. Shaw Miller. who came from Scotland in 1828.

WALTER A. GLADSTONE, a descendant of Robert Gladstone, was born at the Gladstone homestead in 1834. His early mature years were spent at carpenter's work. He resided in Andes village until 1878, when he bought the homestead, a dairy farm of two hundred and forty acres. He was married in 1859, to Nancy T., daughter of William Crozier.

ROBERT T. HADDOW came from Scotland and settled in Andes in 1836. His children were; John T., a mechanic in Lumberville, N. Y.; Anderson, who served in the 144th N.Y. volunteers, now of Bainbridge, N.Y.; Marriete, a successful and popular teacher, who married, in 1876, Dr. Virgil H. Gue, of Ulster county; Robert T., who served in the 8th N. Y. independent battery; and David T., a young farmer at Jacksonburgh, in the town or Andes.

NOAH B. HAMILTON was born in 1822 at Dingle Hill, where he now resides. His father was the first settler on the farm he now owns. Mrs. Hamilton was a sister of John Glendening. She was married in 1849 and died in 1873. Mr. Hamilton has been commissioner of highways for three years. He was an active man in the Anti-Rent time, being known as an up-renter. In the skirmish of 1845, he was wounded by a sabre.

ISAAC E. HANMER was born in Colchester in 1836. He was a teacher fourteen years, but after his removal to Union Grove, in 1860, he was variously engaged being a Union soldier with the 101st regiment for a time. He was discharged in 1862 for physical disability, after which he engaged in lumbering and selling general merchandise, and is at present a mechanic. Mr. Hanmer has been twice elected justice of the peace, and once associate judges of of Delaware county. His father, R. N. Hanmer, was born in Dutchess county in 1810, and removed to Delaware county in 1820.

CHARLES A. HEIMER, son of Francis Heimer, who came from Altonburg, Saxony, in 1848, was born in Andes in 1853. He was married in 1878 to Hattie, daughter of Charles O'Brien.

SILAS D. HILTON was born in Bovina in 1809. His life has been spent in agricultural and mechanical pursuits. He was a prominent leader in the Anti-Rent movement, and commanded the "Indian Brigade" when the excitement culminated in 1845. He was afterward the candidate of the Anti-Rent party for Assembly. Mr. Hilton was supervisor of Andes two years, justice of the peace seven years, and justice of sessions of Delaware county two years. His father, Eliab, was a son of Nathan H. Hilton, who came to Bovina from Connecticut in the latter part of the last century.

J. K. HOOD was born in Illinois, in 1843; educated at Fayetteville Academy, Pa. He enlisted, in 1862, with the 126th Pa. Volunteers; was discharged in February, 1863, on account of physical disability, and re-enlisted with the 21st Pa. Cavalry in July, 1863, for six months. Before the expiration of that term he re-nlisted with the same regiment for three years, and with that regiment was finally discharged at Lynchburg, VA., in 1865. He then entered the mercantile business in New York city. In 1866 he removed to Bovina, where he was partner in the firm of Hastings & Hood for two years. In 1869 he removed to Andes, where his is now doing business. He was married to Marry E. Norris, in 1874

IRA HULL, son of Ebenezer Hull, from Connecticut, was born in Delaware county in 1798. He was married to Elizabeth Ackerly in 1824, and soon after settled near Perch lake, where he died in 1878. His family consists of five children. The youngest son, Calvin, now occupies the homestead. His wife is Josephine, daughter of Solomon Bussy.

WILLIAM A. HULL, son of Ira Hull, was born in 1832 at the Hull homestead. His wife was Frances D. Hitt, of Colchester, to whom he was married in 1865. Mr. Hull bought his present farm of one hundred and sixty acres in 1856 and 1872.

JOHN JACKSON, son of John and Betsey Jackson, who came to this country from Scotland in 1849, was born in Scotland in 1818. In 1847 he was married to Isabelle Robb, of Scotch descent. Their family consisted of seven children, of whom two girls are now living. Maggie is Mrs. George Liddle, of Wolf Hollow. Walter Jackson was born in Scotland in 1811, and was married to Mary Little in 1864. He is one of sixteen children, fourteen of whom are living.

ANSON JENKINS was born in Roxbury in 1833. He was married in 1856 to Sarah Mekeel, of Middletown. Both are members of the Primitive Baptist church, of which Mr. Jenkins is one of the trustees. His early life was spent in lumbering and farming. He came to Union Grove in 1850. Since 1867 he has carried on the oldest mill on the Barkaboom stream.

PETER KING was born in Scotland in 1818, and came to America in 1843. He spent twenty-seven years in New York in the business of ship and steamboat building. For eighteen years he carried on the business in the firm of King & Eells. In 1870 he located on the Tremper kill in Andes, where he now resides. Mr. King is a leading farmer, making a specialty of improved breeds of cattle and swine.

WILLIAM C. LIANG was born in Andes in 1839. He early learned to cooper's trade, and worked at it until 1867. He then entered into partnership with George N. Clinton, of Andes, in the grocery business. In 1873 he bought his present farm of fifty-five acres. Since 1876 he has been in partnership with William Oliver in the Dowie mill. He has been justice of the peace in Andes four years.

A. E. LIDDLE, son of Alexander, whose father, Thomas Liddle, came to this county from Scotland, was born in 1846. He was married to Oliva J. Burgin in 189. Mr. Liddle owns a farm of one hundred acres and a saw-mil on the Tremper kill.

SILAS J. MASON was born in Essex county in 1840. From 1854 to 1861 he was a sailor on the upper lakes, when he enlisted in Company H, 5th N.Y. cavalry. He was with the regiment in all its campaigns excepting five months while a prisoner at Libby and Belle Isle. Of 106 men in his company only fifteen came out alive. The regiment was in Custer's brigade, Kilpatrick's division, and was put into one hundred and seventy-one engagements. "Sergant S.J.Mason, with nine men, guarded the neutral ground between the two armies when General Lee surrendered his army to General Grant April 9th, 1865, at Appomattox Court-house." After the war he engaged in the construction of railroads. He came to Union Grove in 1871, end entered the mercantile business, in which he is still engaged.

L. B. McCABE was born in Andes in 1828. He was engaged in farming and lumbering until 1869, when he engaged in mercantile business with his brother at Shavertown. In 1875 he removed to Andes village, where he is now selling groceries, fruits, confectionery, etc. He was married in 1851 to Sarah C., daughter of Philip Shaver, a soldier of 1812.

RICHARD M. McCALL, a grandson of John McCall, who came to Walton (then Delhi) from Seneca county, in the latter part of the last century, was born at Walton in 1841. He enlisted in Company I, 3d Excelsior regiment (72nd N.Y. volunteers) in 1861. He was taken prisoner at Chancellorsville the first day of battle; got a leg parade the night following. He was married in 1871 to Mary E., daughter of Samuel Peck.

IRA E. MINER was born in Pleasant Valley in 1852, and married to Viola, daughter of Freeman Shafer, of Andes, in 1877. He was a teacher in the public schools nine years, but in the spring of 1879 bought his present location, a nice dairy and grain farm in the valley of the east branch.

OLIVER E. MINER was born in Connecticut in 1821, and came to Andes in 1825. He is engaged in farming and lumbering, having a farm of seven hundred acres. Mr. Miner has been notary public for four years, and has held town offices at different times.

HON. RICHARD MORSE was born in Andes, in 1809. He is a son of Joshua Morse, of Revolutionary fame, who settled in Andes in 1803. His occupation was dairy farming until 1852, when he entered the mercantile business in the village of Andes, from which he retired in 1876. He was justice of the peace in Delaware county four years, served as supervisor of Andes five terms, and represented this Assembly district in the Legislature of 1850.

JAMES MUIR was born in Andes in 1833. He was a carpenter and joiner until 1869, when he opened a jewelry store in Andes, where he is now engaged. He carries a stock of sporting goods, including fishing-tackle, ammunition and a general variety of jeweler's goods.

HENRY MUIR was born in Scotland, in 1796, and came to New York city in 1817, and was married to Charlotte, daughter of Thomas Turnbull, in 1832. He died Oct. 24th, 1874. Of his children, Margaret is Mrs. Alftred Glendening, of Dingle Hill; Mary is with David and Henry D., who own the homestead on the Tremper kill. Henry D.'s wife was Mary F. Scudder. The were married in 1874.

HENRY S. MURRAY, a native of Bovina, was born in 1836. He early learned the tinsmiths's trade, and in 1857 entered into business with C.B.Shafer. In 1875 he secured a patent on the Delaware county milk pan (an improved pan for dairy purposes), and has since been engaged in their manufacture at Andes. He was with the 8th N.Y. battery in all its engagements; promoted to sergeant in 1862, and discharged at the close of the war.

A.B.McCUNE was born in Delhi, in 1855. He was married to Maggie Lamont in 1874, and bought a farm in Shavertown n 1878. He has one hundred acres of land; keeps six cows.

ROBERT McFARLAND was born in Scotland, in 1824, and came to Delaware county in 1833. He was married to Janette Garrick, in 1859. He is a dairy farmer.

DAVID MCLEAN was born in 1839. He was married in 1868 to Mary Ann, daughter of Ezra S. Dumond. His farm at Dingle Hill was settled by John Van Keuren. His father, Alexander McLean, came to this county from the highland of Scotland in 1835.

ROBERT McNAIR, son of John McNair, from Scotland, was born in New Jersey in 1836. He came to Andes in 1867, and purchased a farm On the Tremper kill. The following year he was married to Hattie Morton of Sullivan county.

JOHN R. NEWKIRK, son of Cornelius Newkirk, one of the first settlers of Middletown, was born in 1814, and marred in 1850 to Ann Davis. He was a merchant in Andes, with James Smith, for twenty years. In 1848 be bought a farm south of Andes village, where he now resides.

JAMES O'CONNOR, son of Francis O'Connor, was born in Andes in 1835. His grandfather was among the first settlers of Bovina in 1803. His grandfather's grandfather Edward came from Dublin to Albany county before the French and Indian war in this country. Mr. O'Connor is a poet of a rare and peculiar genius and his works are winning their way to popular favor.

GEORGE POTTS, son of John Potts was born in Edinburgh in 1816. In 1826 he came to this county with mother, who settled on the farm which he now owns. His wife was Miss Charlotte Imrie, to whom he was married in 1847. The oldest daughter is Mrs. James D. George, of Delhi. Their daughter Mary Is a teacher.

WILLIAM RESIDE, of Ireland, served in the Continental army, and at the close of the Revolution settled in Middletown on land that had previously been occupied by the Phoenix family. His son, John Reside, served in Colonel Farrington's regiment in the war of 1812 and another son. Philip, also a soldier, was killed in an encounter on the Canada frontier. The sons of John Reside, William and Frank now live on Cross Mountain; William as is elsewhere recorded, having been an active participant in the Anti-Rent struggle.

ELY REYNOLDS, son of Robert Reynolds and grandson of James Reynolds, of Dutchess county, was born in l838. He was married in 1836 to Roseanah, daughter of Henry G. Tuttle, and granddaughter of Jedediab Conell, a pioneer.

JOHN B. ROBERTS was born in Andes in 1845. He worked at harness making in this county and the west until 1874, when he opened a shop in Andes. In 1876 he formed a copartnership with C. W. Bohlman, and since then the business has been carried on under the firm name of Roberts & Bohlman. Mr. Roberts, is at present clerk of the corporation and town clerk of Andes.

WILLIAM J. RONEY was born in Andes in 1823, and died in 1871. He was married to Mary E. Bagley in 1861. The family consists of three children: Carrie, born in 1862; John, born in 1864; Ollie, born in 1865. They have a farm of one hundred and sixty-five acres, which Mrs. Roney carries on. Carrie died in 1865.

HAWLEY RUSSELL, grandson of James Russell, who came to this country from Scotland in 1790, was born in Bovina in 1844. He has been a carpenter and joiner since 1859. He opened a wagon shop in Shavertown in 1876. He was married in 1871 to Mary E. Davis of Andes.

ISAAC SAMUELS, a dairy farmer, was born in Andes in 1836. He was married in 1859 to Mary, daughter of Benjamin Trempter, of Andes.

JAMES F. SCOTT was born in Bovina in 1842. He removed toAndes in 1862. In 1877 he was married to Lizzie, daughter of George Fletcher, of Andes. He has been cashier of the First National Bank of Andes for fifteen years. He has been supervisor since 1873, and is now president of the village of Andes.

JOHN SCOTT was born at Fall Clove in 1840. He is a leading farmer, owning a fine farm of six hundred and sixty acres. His father, Andrew Scott, was born in Hawick, Scotland, in 1798, and came to this country in 1818. He was one of those earnest, sturdy farmers who cut out the farms along this valley. He died in 1871: his wife, Helen Jamison Scott, was born in Scotland in 1804, and died at Fall Clove in 1865.

ROBERT SCOTT was born in Scotland in 1819 and married to Eleen Foster in 1843. They came to Delaware county six years after. They have had three Scotch and eight American born children. Of these five are living. Eliza and George are with their parents. Mr. Scott has been a blacksmith in Andes twelve years.

AARON A. SHAVER was born in Andes in 1815. He engaged in lumbering and rafting until 1871, when his boys took charge of the business. He was married in 1843 to Ellen Y. Yeomans, of Delhi. Mrs. Shaver died in 1878. Mr. and Mrs. Shaver were among the fonders of the Shavertown Presbyterian church. Aaron is son of Jacob P. and grandson of Philip Shaver, a pioneer.

DANIEL SHAFER was born in Andes in l826. His life has been spent in farming and lumbering. His wife was Margaret Hull, of Ulster county. William R. his brother, entered the army in May, 1861, in the 3rd Excslsior regiment, afterward known as the 72nd N.Y.S. volunteers. His wife was Maggie A. Radeker, of Colchester. Their father was Peter Shaher, a son of Adam Shafer, an early settler.

EDWARD W. SHAFER, son of Daniel B. and grandson of Colonel Adam Shafer, a descendant of Phillip Shafer, a pioneer, was born in 1838. He began harness making in l860, in partnership with John Reynolds. Since 1870 he has carried on the business alone. Mr. Shafer has been town clerk of Andes four terms.

GEORGE W. SHAFER, son of Peter and grandson of Phillip Shaver, was born in Andes in 1826. He was married in 1862 to Jane, daughter of John D. Fuller, of Downsville. Mr. Shafer served ten years in the militia. He is a dairy farmer, with a farm of one hundred and fifty acres on the Tremper kill.

PETER H. SHAFER was born in Andes, in 1847. He was a farmer until 1877, when he built a tannery on the Tremper kill, where he carries on the business of upper leather tanning. He did a business of $3,000 the first year, and by making a specialty of extra upper leather is building up a fine trade.

REV. E. H. STEVESON, A. M. was born in Pennsylvania, in 1821. A self-educated man, he graduated at Delaware College with the class of '46. He was principal of Hopewell Academy two years; had charge of a mission station on the western reserve three years, was ten years a missionary to India, was for a time principal of Oxford Female Seminary, Pa., also of the New London Academy, where he had been a student. He graduated at the Theological Seminary of Canonsburg, Pa. Since 1876 he has been at the head of Andes Collegiate Institute.

GEORGE STOTT, one of the leading farmers of Fall Clove, was born in Bovina, in 1833. His wife, Ellen, is a daughter of Adam Cowan. They were married in 1863 They have a fine farm of four hundred and forty acres. Mr. Stott's father, George, was a son of Walter Stott, who came to this county from Scotland.

ADAM SUTHERLAND was born in Andes, in 1842, and married in 1866 to Ellen, daughter of Robert Scott. He was a blacksmith until 1869, since then a dairy farmer. Mr. Sutherland has been justice of the peace for six years. His brother James was a soldier in the Union army.

GEORGE SUTHERLAND, blacksmith and dairy farmer, came to Delaware county in 1842. He was born in Scotland, in 1813. His family has consisted of seven children. His son James entered the Federal army with Company B,144th regiment. He was in the service two years: was discharged with the regiment, and died in Iowa, in 1869.

DAVID TAYLOR and his wife Ann George, were pioneers of Cabin Hill. Of their children, Elizabeth is Mrs. John Raitt, of Bovina; John pastor of the U. P. church at Cottonwood Falls, Kansas; Christiana and David in Iowa; Margaret at home; James occupies the Homestead. He was married in 1860 to Jane Black. Three of their children, David, Janet and James died in the scarlet fever epidemic of 1875.

JAMES H. WASHBURN was born in Andes in 1818. He is a grandson of Jonathan Washburn, a soldier of the Revolution. Mr. Washburn has a dairy farm of one hundred and seventy-five acres, in the vicinity of Perch lake. He was married in 1839 to Louisa J., daughter of Oliver Miner.

WILLIAM WHITE was born in Perthshire, Scotland, in 1807, and came to Delaware county in 1832. He was married the following year to Eliza Darling, who died August 24th, 1868. Their youngest daughter is Mrs. James Darling, of Fall Clove.

JOHN H. WOODIN was born in Putnam county, then a part of Dutchess county, in the year 1798. He came to Delaware county in 1808, and to his present farm on Dingle Hill in 1822. His family consists of five sons and six daughters. He has been associated with the Primitive Baptist church since 1839. His father, Henry, settled his farm in 1822.

JANES WHITISON was born in Scotland, in 1831. When three years old he came with his father, John, to Dingle Hill, where he now lives. His wife, Mary, is a daughter of Archibald McNair. They were married in 1854. His farm of three hundred and twenty-eight acres was originally settled by the Burr family. Mr. Whitson is an elder in the U.P. church of Andes.


Index to History of Delaware County by Munsell

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